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  • Ikkansai completed articles

    As the Ikkansai thread is becoming something of a Magnum Opus, trawling through the translations may be difficult, so here are the completed Articles:

    As more are completed, more will be added

    Article 1:

    First and foremost, thanks to Asahi Shinbun Digital and author Tanaka Akihiro for the use for educational purposes of materials posted on the internet.

    Asahi Shinbun Digital > Articles

    Shiga (Prefecture) The City of Nagahama sets up a committee to re evaluate (The importance of) Kunitomo Ikkansai.

    Paid member limited articles (More is available for subscribers)

    Tanaka Akihiro (Author) 03.00Hrs 15th November 2018




    Mr Kazumi Hirose (Present Owner) in front of the exhibition of artifacts once belonging to Kunitomo Ikkansai, courtesy of Kunitomo Historic Gun Museum, Nagahama City.

    The nationwide importance of the Edo period Inventor and Gunsmith Kunitomo Ikkansai (1778 - 1840), who worked in Nagahama, is being re evaluated locally, the committee is being led by Mr Horikawa Tadayuki who is also Vice President of the Nagahama City Chamber of Commerce and Industry.

    It is said that their intention is to produce a dramatic film of Ikkansei's Life including his creation of the first Reflective Telescope produced in Japan and even envisaged an Aeroplane. (Both based upon his "Rangaku" studies in both Edo and Dejima).

    In 2015, Naoki literary prizewinning author, Mr Yamamoto Ken'ichi (1965 - 2014) had published (Posthumously) a novel about the life and times of Ikkansai entitiled "True Dreams", this provided momentum for the increased re evaluation (of Kunitomo Ikkansai's importance) by Nagahama City.

    At the inaugural meeting (of the re evaluation committee) which took place on October 23rd (2018 I presume), those present represented: The City, The Chamber of Commerce & Industry, Kunitomo area Neighbourhood Association, Kunitomo Gun Research Group and others.

    It was decided (at the meeting) to re evaluate the historic materials relating to Ikkansai and (plan) to hold an event.



    Ikkansai was born in Kunitomo Village, into a Gun - Smithing household which served the Shogunate.

    After being called by the Shogunate to serve in Edo, he asked to repair a Dutch Airgun and (as a result of studying its mechanism) made his own style of Airgun.

    In addition, he had the opportunity to study a Dutch Reflective Telescope, and later made his own, which was the first (Home produced) in Japan.

    (Using the reflective telescope he had made) He observed sunspot activity for over a year.

    He left a record of his studies, which is still highly regarded by modern Astronomers.

    In addition he left (designs for) Lamps and lighting equipment (Lamp.........

    This is a Paid Member limited article.

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    Last edited by Malcolm; 05-11-2019, 04:41 AM.
    Pip Pip Cheerio

    Malcolm

  • #2
    Article 2:

    Home Page:
    Kunitomo Ikkansai (1778 - 1840)

    A Scientist who made Astronomical Calculations for the first time in Japan

    <The Birthplace and Achievements of Ikkansai>



    Kunitomo Ikkansai was born in 1778 into the family of Toubei who was a Toshiyori Elder of the household in the Kunitomo Gun Forge.

    In his childhood he was known as Touichi.

    At the age of nine, he was granted his father's name of Kunitomo Toubei and the use of the Art name Ikkansai.

    Taught thoroughly by his father since childhood, at 17 (on the passing or retirement of his father) he became the official Elder (of the Forge).

    Ikkansai was not only a superlative Gunsmith in his own right but an innovator in so many different areas, from the devising of an Airgun to the production of a Telescope
    and also leaving copious notes on his astronomical studies for future generations.

    He passed away, at home in 1840, at the age of 63, just before the great Bakumatsu upheavals (effectively the twilight of the Shogunate).


    Ikkansai's Birthplace




    Links:
    1. Kunitomo - Gunsmiths of the Times

    2. Ikkansai's Gunsmithing

    3. Ikkansai - The Scientist and his Astronomical Telescope

    4. Other Achievements

    5. Important Dates in Ikkansai's Life

    6. Related Links


    PLEASE NOTE, MANY OF THE LINKS ON "6. RELATED LINKS" ARE NOT FUNCTIONING, OR FLAG AS POSSIBLE MALWARE
    THE PAGE HAS NOT BEEN UPDATED SINCE 1998


    Link Page 1

    1. Kunitomo - Gunsmiths of the Times
    <Kunitomo Gunsmiths of the Edo period>

    Gun production at Kunitomo, which began during the Sengoku era reached its peak during the Keicho era (1596 - 1615) with a massive order by the Tokugawa Shogunate for the encampment at Osaka.

    It is said that in the first year of the Genwa era (1615) there were 73 Kunitomo Master Blacksmiths and 500 craftsmen on site at the Osaka encampment.

    Four of the Toshiyori Elders formed a Trade Association to control Gun production, it was called "Sou Kaji" or "Nakama".


    <Social Stability and Conflict within the Gunsmiths' Association>

    However, with an increase is social stability and financial difficulties within the Shogunate, orders for Guns decreased.

    Also the price of Iron and Charcoal rose, making the Gunsmith's lives very hard, some sold their fields and left the countryside. (around Kunitomo Village)

    Under these circumstances a big problem had arisen within the organisation of Gunsmiths.

    This was chiefly due to the inequality between the privileges and rights granted to the Toshiyori Elders (By the Shogunate) and all others who were under the Toshiyori's jurisdiction.

    This system of Underwriting with 4 tenths of the order going to the 4 Toshiyori Elders continued throughout the Shogunal era. (Until 1867/8)

    Orders from the Shogunate continued to decline, so the intensity of the animosity and confrontation between the Toshiyori elders escalated. (year by year)


    <The Decline of Gunsmithing>

    It was in the Tenmei era (1781 - 1789) that an incident occurred.

    In the fifth year of Tenmei 1785, Zenbee, a Toshiyori Elder, lost 200 Ryo, which was payment for a gun order from the Shogunate (equal to 200 Koku bushels of Rice) on his way back from Edo.

    Since the other Gunsmiths brought this question to the attention of the Shogunate, a Magistrate was sent from Edo to investigate.

    Despite ten interrogations having been conducted, Zenbee died whilst in custody, and the truth was never discovered.

    This incident served to tarnish the reputation of the Gunsmiths' Organisation and the power and privilege of the Toshiyori Elders. (From which they never recovered).


    <Ikkansai and the Hikone Incident>

    In 1811, when Ikkansai was 34 years old he received an order from the Hikone Han (Clan household) for a large bore gun of 200 Monme calibre (which would fire a ball of 750 grams weight).

    By doing this, Ikkansai was being directly favoured and commanded by the Hikone Han.

    However, because Ikkansai had received the orders for both Guns and Gifts by direct command from the Hikone Han, his rival Toshiyori elders complained directly to the HIkone Han that such a thing was unacceptable. (This was an extreme insult to the Hikone Han).

    As a result, (of the rebuke by the rival Toshiyori elders) the Hikone Han became enraged and angrily cancelled the order and furthermore prohibited any Kunitomo Gun or Kunitomo Gunsmith from entering the Hikone Han's territory.

    Many Gunsmiths began petitioning the Hikone Domain directly in order to obtain the raw materials for their trade which had to pass through the Han and thus, (Because of the ban) they could not work.

    Eventually the Shogunate sent a Magistrate from Edo to investigate the matter and following his investigation, the two Toshiyori Elders (who had rebuked the Hikone Han) were punished.

    Meanwhile, in 1816, Ikkansai was invited to Edo (initially) as a witness, he stayed (in Edo) for six years, returning (to Kunitomo) in 1822.

    At that time in Edo, new academic disciplines and research (into previously forbidden areas) were becoming active.

    Sugita Genpaku had translated Kaitai Shinsho ( "The New Book of Anatomy" from the original Dutch "Ontleedkundige Tafelen" - Dissecting Tables ) and other areas were also being studied such as medicine, astronomy, geography, chemistry, physics etc, from Rangaku (Lit Dutch Studies - permitted texts allowed through Dejima).

    Ikkansai absorbed the new sciences and technologies enthusiastically.

    In addition, Ikkansai became very close to the group led by Nationalist Scholar and prolific author Hirata Atsutane.

    His interaction with so many different people (and ideas) had a tremendous influence upon his inventions and the course of his life thereafter.


    Link Page 2

    2. Ikkansai's Gunsmithing


    Large Gun made by Ikkansai (100 (monme) Ball calibre)

    The Hikone incident of 1811 served to highlight many of the problems within the Gunsmiths of Kunitomo.

    However, the beginnings of the Hikone Incident lay in the simple fact that Ikkansai had been named as an individual during the ordering process for the Gun. (and thus being highly favoured by the Hikone Domain to the detriment of the other Toshiyori elders).

    From this, one can understand how excellent Ikkansai was as a Gunsmith.

    <Production of The Airgun>

    It was not only Firearms that Ikkansai built as a Gunsmith.

    Ikkansai's in depth knowledge of the Dutch Sciences came mainly from his friend Yamada Daien (1765 - 1831), who was an Opthalmologist in Osaka.

    In 1814, before going to Edo, Ikkansai was fascinated by the story of a Dutch Air Gun which (his friend) Daien told him, and succeeded in making a model.

    In the first year of the Bunsei era, 1818, Ikkansai had been in Edo for some time when his old friend Daien who was now working as a general Doctor for the Shogunal Household, brought a Dutch Air Gun (Property of the Shogun) for repair, (Ikkansai studied it) and in one month it was repaired.

    This Air Gun was not a weapon, more like a Toy which had little power when a bullet was fired, and could not be made to fire consecutively. (On one charge of Air)

    However, Ikkansai was deeply interested in the principle upon which the Air Gun functioned and fascinated by the sophistication of being able to fire bullets without an explosive (Black Powder).

    At the time the (large scale) production of Black Powder was limited as the raw materials were in short supply.

    And so (after some thought) he decided to correct the weaknesses of the Air Gun and increase its power so that it could really be used as a weapon.

    Since then he (Ikkansai) devoted himself to study the Air Gun (in depth) and after one year succeeded in making a repeat firing Gun.

    The Gun had a calibre of 1.1 cm, a barrel of 75 cm and an overall length of 140 cm, paired with a pneumatic pump,it was said to be dozens of times more powerful than its Dutch counterpart.



    Air Gun and Pump made by Ikkansai




    Air Gun Mechanism




    (From the Airgun Manual (of Ikkansai))

    The orders from the Shogunate and each Clan came one after another, despite the Guns being very expensive to produce at 35 - 60 Ryo per Gun.

    Also he began (to teach?) and many people came to begin (Shooting).

    So, for these people he produced a woodblock printed manual which explained the construction and correct usage of his Air Gun.

    He continued to make improvements all through the (early years of) Tenpou Era (1831 - 1845) culminating is a 20 shot repeater (Air Gun).

    <Disclosure of the methods of Firearm Production>



    「Manufacturing methods for large and small Guns」

    Ikkansai's achievements did not remain solely as a Gunsmith.

    In 1819, he wrote "Manufacturing methods for large and small guns", at the request of Matsudaira Sadanobu (ex Senior Shogunal Official who just retired in 1818 ).

    At the time, the need for Guns to protect the Country was growing, following Russia's invasion of the Kuril Islands, Great Britain's illegal landing in Kyushu and many other incidents involving foreign vessels followed one after another.

    Ikkansai, who was in Edo (at the time) was contacted by Sadanobu who thought it necessary to speed up the production and deployment of Guns and Cannon to protect the Country from foreign ships.

    Ikkansai's book was comprehensive, covering the methods of mass production of both Guns and Cannon capable of firing bullets and ball from 3.75g to 37.5Kgs, he also specified (in precise detail) the materials required and the number of craftsmen required to accomplish the task.

    Until now (1819) the production methods for making Guns was kept an absolute secret, even parents and children were sworn to secrecy, so this book was Ground Breaking (when published).

    <Master of Gunnery>

    In accordance with the training he received from his father, Ikkansai also believed, that without a firm understanding of Gunnery, he could not make a good Gun.

    So, from childhood Ikkansai had trained in the Gunnery of several schools including Tanegahima Ryu, Ogino Ryu, Hoshiyama Ryu and Yoneyama Ryu.

    Also in 1827, he received the Menkyo Kaiden (highest License of transmission) of the Jitoku Ryu school of Gunnery.

    He had many apprentices, most became students to study the techniques of Gun making, however, it is said that others followed him to study the arts of Gunnery.​​​​​​​

    Link Page 3

    3. Ikkansai - The Scientist and his Astronomical Telescope




    Whilst many aspects of Ikkansai's lifelong study of Science are still being evaluated, the importance of his creation of the first (Reflective) Telescope and his journal of Astronomical studies still has a strong impact upon researchers today.



    <First encounter with a Astronomical Telescope>





    Structural Diagram of a Gregorian type Telescope


    Ikkansai first encountered an example of Dutch Astronomical Telescope (Gregorian type) whilst he was staying in Edo and it opened a new world of possibilities for him.

    It is said that Ikkansai first saw the Astronomical Telescope in 1820 at the Edo Home of (Politician and Shogunate supporter) Naruse Hayato no Kami.

    It was observed to be a British made Gregorian Astronomical Reflector telescope.

    Ikkansai was surprised by the sophistication of the Telescope and determined to make a telescope of his own.

    <The commencement of making an Astronomical Telescope >


    However, it was 10 years before he (Ikkansai) was able to complete his Telescope due to the heavy workload from his Gunsmithing business.

    It was in 1832 when Ikkansai was 55 years old, that he realised his long cherished dream, and began to work upon his Astronomical Telescope.



    Illustration of Reflective Mirror Telescope

    The Brass tubes and outer lens mounts were ordered from Kohei of Nagahama (a local precision Metal worker) and Ikkansai himself set to producing the more important items such as the reflective mirrors and lenses.


    Ikkansai's personal Astronomical Telescope

    (Collection of Nagahama Castle History Museum)


    However, at that time, there were no books or other sources of guidance and despite his advanced metal working skills as a Gunsmith, it was a series of difficulties and failures.

    He carried out dozens of experiments upon what he referred to as his "Mikusen Shinkyo" Secret mirror in order to perfect the reflector.

    He continued to experiment, whilst continually changing the proportions of the constituents of the alloy.

    Finally, he discovered that a 65% Copper and 35% Tin combination gave the best result.

    He carefully polished the Mirrors that he had made in this way.

    Ikkansai (said) that during the polishing process, he prayed to the Gods and kept his mind in a pure state throughout.


    In addition, although Ikkansai's working drawing illustrates 3 lenses, ( 1 Eyepiece lens and 2 Objective Lenses) he only produced and used 2 Lenses (on his telescope).

    Ikkansai (also wrote) that he struggled severely during their production (of the two lenses).

    His lenses have excellent shape and clarity and compare best with Quartz lenses than others.

    Originally it was believed that (Natural) Quartz was used for the lenses, later, as a result of early Scientific Optical measurement, it was determined that a soda type glass was used, however, now it is more fully understood that glass mixed with Potassium oxide was used for both lenses.

    In this way (Ikkansai) discovered that during the pouring (of the molten glass) he was able to devise ways to minimise defects which he would later correct in polishing to the final spherical form.

    In October of 1833, 1 year and 3 months after beginning, Ikkansai had completed his Telescope and was able to make observations of both the Moon and Jupiter.

    It surprised many to discover that Ikkansai's Telescope was more accurate with finer lenses and mirrors than the Shogunate's Astronomical Telescope and double the magnification of the original Dutch model (Upon which it was based).


    <A detailed record of Astronomical observations>


    As soon as the Telescope was completed in 1833, Ikkansai began his detailed observations with his telescope of the Moon and Jupiter, this intense period of scientific observation began of the 11th of October and terminated on the 7th of November, his records of this observation remain.



    Monthly Observation Record (1836)


    The illustration dated for 1836 is a faithful representation of what Ikkansai observed in 1833 with some adjustments made (by Ikkansai himself) over the years.

    Every time the telescope was used, corrections were made upon the basis of the information noted (By Ikkansai).

    Also Ikkansai wrote that he had observed the surface of the Moon and saw mountains, valleys, flat lands and ponds, he also wrote about the general unevenness (of the terrain) including craters and areas that he thought were capped with snow.

    The drawing (by Ikkansai) is surprisingly accurate and compares favourably with photographs taken using modern astronomical telescopes.



    Star Chart (1836)

    He also observed the Planets in the Solar System.

    He also observed (and recorded) five planets, the atmospheric clouds of Jupiter, Saturn's Ring and the Galilean moons , the fact that Venus is missing is also recorded in the journal.

    < (Ikkansai's) Sunspot observation and its important contribution to World Astronomical History>


    Out of all the many observations that Ikkansai made, his Sunspot Activity observations are by far the most famous.

    The continuous record of Sunspot Activity readings commenced on the 6th of January 1835 and concluded on the 8th of February 1836 (accounting for overcast days), Readings were taken twice a day at 8am and at 2pm, the total number of days logged was 157 with a total 216 readings (subject to visibility).

    In summary, the method of recording involved close observation and then marking down on the Sun, Moon, Star chart, the exact position and size of the Sunspot activity from memory.

    In the record, it states as follows:

    1. The black spot is where the temperature is lower and the fire is not burning.

    2. The edge of the black spot (penumbra) appears to be bleeding to a half shadow. (edge Temperature is slightly higher?)

    3. Ikkansai wrote, that he had not seen the shape of the same Sun spot repeated.

    There were times when they were numerous and times when they were few.

    4. Black spots migrate from bottom left to top right and then are not visible for 10 days. (See Below)





    Continuous record of Sunspot activity (1835)



    (Ikkansai's Discoveries) clearly demonstrated many aspects common to modern Astronomy, such as the relationship between the surface temperature of the Sun and Sunspots, the discovery of the penumbra (fade), the physical changes in Sunspots and also the rotation of the Sun itself.

    The Folk belief, common in those days, was that earth (soil) rose through the heavens to the Sun and solidified as black spots. (The Earth (planet) feeding the Sun)

    (Ikkansai's clear observations) perfectly overturned such superstitious concepts.

    Ikkansai's observations and discoveries (upon Sunspot activity) were the first in the World, apart from those initiated by the German Astonomer, Schwabe, nine years previously in 1826.

    In addition, by comparing Schwabe and Ikkansai's notes and journals, it is remarkable the similarity in their individual discoveries and how accurate Ikkansai's were.

    The accuracy of Ikkansai's discoveries is of great importance to World Astronomy as well as his native Japan.


    <The Telescope that saved Kunitomo Village>

    In May and June of 1836, the weather nationwide was extremely bad and as a result the Rice crop failed.

    As a result, the price of Rice rose dramatically and a nationwide famine ensued.

    It was known to the World as "The Great Tenpo Famine".

    Kunitomo Village was also very badly affected when the Anegawa River overflowed, flooding the fields and destroying the crops.

    Because the village was comprised mostly of Gunsmiths and Craftsmen, there were few farmers and as a result the village fared worse than others. (For locally grown supplies).

    As a result, the Villagers (of Kunitomo) were driven to the verge of starvation.

    At this time, Ikkansai abandoned his astronomical studies and sold his beloved telescope to the Daimyo in order to save the people of Kunitomo Village.

    It is reported that Ikkansai visited a local Shinto shrine and prayed to the Gods (On behalf of the Villagers), he said that he could not let the suffering of the people of his village go unaided and that the creation of the telescope and all his other blessings was a result of their support.



    There are four known Ikkansai Telescopes in existence, they are currently held by: The Kunitomo Family in Kunitomo, Nagahama Castle History Museum, Hikone Castle Museum and Ueda City Museum in Nagano Prefecture.


    There are a number of links in a box on this page, but all of them are dead

    4. Other achievements

    Although Ikkansai remains as "The Master Gunmaker" his other accomplishments as an inventor are worth similar accolade.

    On his return from Edo, Ikkansai's creativity knew no bounds, armed with his new found knowledge, (of the Western Sciences - via Rangaku) he created one marvellous invention after another.


    Unexpected Inventions




    「 Steel Crossbow」

    Ikkansai created a repeater Crossbow, at the request of Shogunal Council Elder: Matsudaira Sadanobu.

    The crossbow was made of hard tempered Steel and had an effective range of 40 to 50 metres, it was said to be as powerful as a strong long bow.




    Property of Hiyoshi Shrine Kunitomo Town

    「 Sacred Shrine Mirrors 」


    Although it appears to be a normal Sacred Shrine Mirror, when the rays of the Sun hit the back, it behaves in a most mysterious way and the pattern (of the Shide wand) on the back appears to float slightly away from the surface.

    This was a treasured heirloom of the Mito Tokugawa family.

    At first, despite his scholarship, (Ikkansai) did not understand the principle upon which the mirror worked, but after repairing an earlier version, he was able to reproduce the effect and presented examples to both the Mito Family and the Shrine.




    「 Writing Brush 」


    It operates in a similar manner to a modern Fountain Pen.

    Ink is applied to the cotton filled barrel of the brush by the use of a syringe.

    Ink density is controlled by fine adjustments of the brush head itself.



    「Jewel Lamp 」
    A special kind of Lamp, where the wick is suspended in Oil which is floating on the surface of Water.

    Compared with normal dish lamps, the oil is used far more economically and the illumination is much brighter.


    NO ILLUSTRATION



    「Distance Measurement Telescope」


    It was an type of Optical Distance measurement instrument.

    Ikkansai was actually modifying and existing instrument by the addition of lenses etc.

    It was said to be an elaborate construction and performed as well as its Dutch counterpart, but at one tenth of the cost (Approximately 2 Ryo).





    In addition to his numerous inventions, Ikkansai also devised a water pump and a device for blowing Iron Sand. (Something like the Bessemer process?)

    He also investigated concepts similar to that of the modern aeroplane and airship, however these designs were not practical.






    The monument in honour of Ikkansai, situated in front of the (Kunitomo) Town Hall.



    Ikkansai began as a superior Gunsmith and developed into a great scientist and thinker.

    It is impossible to overlook his single achievement against that of the whole (of his lifetimes work).

    In his journals he wrote of the ratio of his successes, and that often almost half of his experiments and attempts were written off.

    This sort of damage was fairly commonplace to the type of work (Undertaken).

    Often with new work, the failure rate was often 5 to 10 attempts.

    Ikkansai wrote, that often, it was a matter of little by little as he approached success, and that his greatest strength lay in the fact that, no matter how many times he failed, his resolve was not lessened and he would doggedly continue until success was achieved.

    Ikkansai's genius and strength of will was exemplified by the fact that, although he did not commence work on his telescope until he was 55 years old, his faculties and determination did not diminish with age until his very last years.

    5. Important Dates in Ikkansai's Life
    C. E. Era Age Achievements
    1778 An - Ei 7 1 Born October 3rd in the village of Kunitomo, Sakata County: Now part of Nagahama City. Named Touichi
    1786 Temmei 6 9 Granted his Father's Art name of Toubei
    1794 Kansei 6 17 Granted the title of Toshiyori Elder and becomes 9th generation Master of the Gun Forge
    1811 Bunka 8 34 Hikone Incident occurs as a result of being personally requested to make a 200 monme calibre Gun by the Hikone Clan
    1814 Bunka 11 37 Learns about the structure of a Dutch Airgun from his friend Yamada Daien and constructs a model
    1816 Bunka 13 39 Invited to Edo by the Shogunate , as a witness in the Hikone Incident, makes friends with the author and nationalist Hirata Atsutane
    1817 Bunka 14 40 Hikone incident is resolved and the guilty are punished
    1818 Bunsei 1 41 Repairs the Shogun's Dutch Airgun and begins development of his own versions. Invents a modification to a distance measurement tool (based upon an existing Dutch example)
    1819 Bunsei 2 42 Ikkansai's Airgun is completed - Publishes his manual on Gunnery
    1820 Bunsei 3 43 First encounter with a Dutch Astronomical Telescope at Naruse Hirata's house
    1821 Bunsei 4 44 Leaves Edo to return to Kunitomo
    1824 Bunsei 7 47 Makes a "Miracle" Shrine Mirror
    1828 Bunsei 11 51 Invents a writing brush and a special Lamp
    1829 Bunsei 12 52 His steel repeating crossbow is completed
    1832 Tenpo 3 55 Begins making his Astronomical Telescope
    1833 Tenpo 4 56 Completes his Astronomical Telescope and begins his observations
    1834 Tenpo 5 57 Begins his observations of the Moon
    1835 Tenpo 6 58 Begins observing Sunspot activity in the New year which continues daily for 15 months
    1836 Tenpo 7 59 As a result of the great National Famine, he sells his telescopes to buy Rice in order to save the starving population of Kunitomo
    1840 Tenpo 11 63 Dies peacefully at Home
    Provided by the Kunitomo Gun Museum

    Link Page 6

    6. Ikkansai Related Links

    This page contains links which no longer work, or flag as malware.


    First and foremost, thanks to Nagahama City and Kunitomo Gun Museum for the use for educational purposes of materials posted on the internet.
    Much of this information was originally collated and written in 1998 by Mr Hideo Hirobe who retains the Copyright.

    ​​​​​​​
    Pip Pip Cheerio

    Malcolm

    Comment


    • #3
      Article 2 Bilingual:

      以下は日本でユーザーフレンドリーになるバージョンです。日本語が1番目、英語が2番目です。

      The following is a version which will be user friendly in Japan, Japanese first and English second.

      インターネットに掲載されている資料の教育目的でのご利用に長浜市と国友銃博物館に感謝します。

      この情報の多くはもともと1998年に著作権を保持している広部秀夫氏Hirobe Hideo氏によって照合され書かれたものです。

      Thanks to Nagahama City and Kunitomo Gun Museum for the use for educational purposes of materials posted on the internet.

      Much of this information was originally collated and written in 1998 by Mr Hideo Hirobe who retains the Copyright.


      ホームページ Home page
      国友一貫斎 (1778 - 1840)

      Kunitomo Ikkansai (1778 - 1840)

      日本で初めて天体観測をした科学者


      A Scientist who made Astronomical Calculations for the first time in Japan

      <一貫斎(いっかんさい)の生い立ちと業績>


      <The Birthplace and Achievements of Ikkansai>



      国友一貫斎は、安永7年(1778)、国友鉄砲鍛治の年寄脇(としよりわき)の家・藤兵衛家に生まれました 。幼名(ようめい)を藤一(とういち)といいました。
       9歳で父の名をついで国友藤兵衛(とうべい)と名のり、一貫斎と号(ごう)しました。幼少のころから父のき びしい教えを受け、17歳で父のあとをつぎ、年寄脇となりました
       一貫斎は、腕のよい鉄砲鍛冶として活躍しただけでなく、気砲(空気銃)の開発や、鉄砲製作方法の公開、それ に天体望遠鏡の製作や、それを使った天体観測など多くの業績(ぎょうせき)を残しました。彼は、天保11年 (1840)、幕末(ばくまつ)の激動(げきどう)を前に自宅で永眠(えいみん)しました。享年(きょうね ん)63才でした。

      Kunitomo Ikkansai was born in 1778 into the family of Toubei who was a Toshiyori Elder of the household in the Kunitomo Gun Forge.

      In his childhood he was known as Touichi.

      At the age of nine, he was granted his father's name of Kunitomo Toubei and the use of the Art name Ikkansai.

      Taught thoroughly by his father since childhood, at 17 (on the passing or retirement of his father) he became the official Elder (of the Forge).

      Ikkansai was not only a superlative Gunsmith in his own right but an innovator in so many different areas, from the devising of an Airgun to the production of a Telescope
      and also leaving copious notes on his astronomical studies for future generations.

      He passed away, at home in 1840, at the age of 63, just before the great Bakumatsu upheavals (effectively the twilight of the Shogunate).


      一貫斎の生家

      Ikkansai's Birthplace




      Links:
      1.当時の国友鉄砲鍛冶

      1. Kunitomo - Gunsmiths of the Times

      2.鉄砲鍛冶としての一貫斎

      2. Ikkansai's Gunsmithing

      3.科学者・一貫斎と天体望遠鏡

      3. Ikkansai - The Scientist and his Astronomical Telescope

      .その他の業績

      4. Other Achievements

      5.一貫斎 略年譜

      5. Important Dates in Ikkansai's Life

      6.一貫斎関連リンク集

      6. Related Links


      リンクページ1 Link Page 1

      1.当時の国友鉄砲鍛冶

      1. Kunitomo - Gunsmiths of the Times

      <江戸時代の国友鉄砲鍛冶>


      <Kunitomo Gunsmiths of the Edo period>

      戦国時代から始まった国友での鉄砲生産は、徳川幕府による大坂の陣に向けての大量注文によって、慶長(けい ちょう)年間に最盛期をむかえました。大坂の陣があった元和元年(1615)の段階で、国友には73軒の鍛 冶屋と500人にのぼる職人がいたといいます。鍛冶たちは、4人の年寄(としより)を中心に「惣鍛冶(そう かじ)」とか「仲間(なかま)」とか呼ばれる同業組合を作り、鉄砲生産を行いました。

      Gun production at Kunitomo, which began during the Sengoku era reached its peak during the Keicho era (1596 - 1615) with a massive order by the Tokugawa Shogunate for the encampment at Osaka.

      It is said that in the first year of the Genwa era (1615) there were 73 Kunitomo Master Blacksmiths and 500 craftsmen on site at the Osaka encampment.

      Four of the Toshiyori Elders formed a Trade Association to control Gun production, it was called "Sou Kaji" or "Nakama".

      <社会の安定と鍛冶仲間の対立>

      <Social Stability and Conflict within the Gunsmiths' Association>

      しかし、江戸時代の中ごろになると、社会が安定し、財政難(ざいせいなん)の幕府からの鉄砲受注(じゅちゅ う)も減りました。また、鉄や炭の価格も上がり、鉄砲鍛冶たちの暮らしは大変苦しくなり、田畑を売ったり、 国友を離れる者もでてきました。
      こうした中で、鍛冶仲間の組織に大きな問題が生まれてきました。それは、年寄の特権と、その他の年寄脇以下 の鍛冶たちの権利の不公平さです。幕府からの受注量の10分の4までを年寄4人で引き受けるという体制が、 この時代まで続いていたのです。幕府からの注文は減少し続けていたので、両者の対立はだんだんと激しくなっ ていきました。

      However, with an increase is social stability and financial difficulties within the Shogunate, orders for Guns decreased.

      Also the price of Iron and Charcoal rose, making the Gunsmith's lives very hard, some sold their fields and left the countryside. (around Kunitomo Village)

      Under these circumstances a big problem had arisen within the organisation of Gunsmiths.

      This was chiefly due to the inequality between the privileges and rights granted to the Toshiyori Elders (By the Shogunate) and all others who were under the Toshiyori's jurisdiction.

      This system of Underwriting with 4 tenths of the order going to the 4 Toshiyori Elders continued throughout the Shogunal era. (Until 1867/8)

      Orders from the Shogunate continued to decline, so the intensity of the animosity and confrontation between the Toshiyori elders escalated. (year by year)

      <鉄砲鍛冶の衰退>

      <The Decline of Gunsmithing>

      このような時、天明(てんめい)事件が起きました。これは、同5年(1785)年寄・善兵衛が、江戸から持 ち帰ってくるはずの幕府から支給された鉄砲代金のうち200両をなくしてしまった事件です。鉄砲鍛冶たちは 、この問題を幕府にうったえたため、江戸奉行(ぶぎょう)が取り調べることになりました。そこで、十数回に もおよぶ取り調べが行われましたが、善兵衛が牢死(ろうし)したため、真相(しんそう)はうやむやになって しまいました。
       この事件は、鍛冶仲間を統率(とうそつ)してきた年寄の力が衰(おとろ)えてきたこと示すことになりました 。

      It was in the Tenmei era (1781 - 1789) that an incident occurred.

      In the fifth year of Tenmei 1785, Zenbee, a Toshiyori Elder, lost 200 Ryo, which was payment for a gun order from the Shogunate (equal to 200 Koku bushels of Rice) on his way back from Edo.

      Since the other Gunsmiths brought this question to the attention of the Shogunate, a Magistrate was sent from Edo to investigate.

      Despite ten interrogations having been conducted, Zenbee died whilst in custody, and the truth was never discovered.

      This incident served to tarnish the reputation of the Gunsmiths' Organisation and the power and privilege of the Toshiyori Elders. (From which they never recovered).

      <一貫斎と彦根事件>

      <Ikkansai and the Hikone Incident>

       
      文化8年(1811)、一貫斎が34才の時、彦根藩(ひこねはん)から200匁目玉の大筒(おおづつ)の注 文を受けて製作しました。これにより、彦根藩は、一貫斎に彦根藩御用掛(ごようがかり)を命じました。
       しかし、一貫斎が他の年寄を差し置いて鉄砲の注文を受けたり御用掛を命じられたため、年寄たちは、そうした ことは認められないとして彦根藩へ訴えました。しかし、かえって彦根藩の怒(いか)りを買い、国友鍛冶の彦 根藩領への立ち入りと、彦根藩から国友への鉄砲注文を一切禁止しました。
      国友鍛冶では、原料の手配を彦根藩に頼む者が多く、また、他から注文を受けた鉄砲も彦根藩を通らないと持ち 出せないので、仕事ができなくなりました。
       やがて、この争いは幕府の江戸奉行所が取り調べることになりましたが、結局は年寄2人を処罰(しょばつ)す ることで終わりました。

       その間、一貫斎は、文化13年、証人(しょうにん)として江戸に呼び出され、この年から文政5年までの6年 間江戸にとどまりました。

      そのころ江戸では、新しい学問や研究が活発になろうとする時期でした。杉田玄白(すぎたげんぱく)の解体新 書(かいたいしんしょ)が出されたり、蘭学(らんがく)を通じて、医学や天文、地理、化学、物理などの学問 が取り入れられたりしていました。一貫斎は、これらの新しい科学や技術を熱心に吸収(きゅうしゅう)しまし た。また、当時国学者として名高い平田篤胤(ひらたあつたね)にも学び親しくつきあいました。
       こうした多くの人との交流が、後の一貫斎のさまざまな発明に大きな影響を与えました。

      In 1811, when Ikkansai was 34 years old he received an order from the Hikone Han (Clan household) for a large bore gun of 200 Monme calibre (which would fire a ball of 750 grams weight).

      By doing this, Ikkansai was being directly favoured and commanded by the Hikone Han.

      However, because Ikkansai had received the orders for both Guns and Gifts by direct command from the Hikone Han, his rival Toshiyori elders complained directly to the HIkone Han that such a thing was unacceptable. (This was an extreme insult to the Hikone Han).

      As a result, (of the rebuke by the rival Toshiyori elders) the Hikone Han became enraged and angrily cancelled the order and furthermore prohibited any Kunitomo Gun or Kunitomo Gunsmith from entering the Hikone Han's territory.

      Many Gunsmiths began petitioning the Hikone Domain directly in order to obtain the raw materials for their trade which had to pass through the Han and thus, (Because of the ban) they could not work.

      Eventually the Shogunate sent a Magistrate from Edo to investigate the matter and following his investigation, the two Toshiyori Elders (who had rebuked the Hikone Han) were punished.

      Meanwhile, in 1816, Ikkansai was invited to Edo (initially) as a witness, he stayed (in Edo) for six years, returning (to Kunitomo) in 1822.

      At that time in Edo, new academic disciplines and research (into previously forbidden areas) were becoming active.

      Sugita Genpaku had translated Kaitai Shinsho ( "The New Book of Anatomy" from the original Dutch "Ontleedkundige Tafelen" - Dissecting Tables ) and other areas were also being studied such as medicine, astronomy, geography, chemistry, physics etc, from Rangaku (Lit Dutch Studies - permitted texts allowed through Dejima).

      Ikkansai absorbed the new sciences and technologies enthusiastically.

      In addition, Ikkansai became very close to the group led by Nationalist Scholar and prolific author Hirata Atsutane.

      His interaction with so many different people (and ideas) had a tremendous influence upon his inventions and the course of his life thereafter.

      リンクページ2

      Link Page 2

      2.鉄砲鍛冶としての一貫斎

      2. Ikkansai's Gunsmithing


      一貫斎作の大筒(百目玉筒)

      Large Gun made by Ikkansai (100 (monme) Ball calibre)

      文化8年(1811)の彦根事件は、当時の国友鉄砲鍛冶の様々な問題を浮(う)き彫(ぼ)りにしました。
       しかし、この事件の発端(ほったん)は、彦根藩が一貫斎に鉄砲を名指(なざ)しで注文したところにありまし た。このことからも、一貫斎が鉄砲鍛冶としていかに優れていたかがわかります。

      The Hikone incident of 1811 served to highlight many of the problems within the Gunsmiths of Kunitomo.

      However, the beginnings of the Hikone Incident lay in the simple fact that Ikkansai had been named as an individual during the ordering process for the Gun. (and thus being highly favoured by the Hikone Domain to the detriment of the other Toshiyori elders).

      From this, one can understand how excellent Ikkansai was as a Gunsmith.

      <気砲(空気銃)の製作>

      <Production of The Airgun>

      一貫斎が鉄砲鍛冶として、製作したのは、火縄銃だけではありませんでした。
       一貫斎のオランダ科学についての知識のほとんどは、友人である大坂の眼科医山田大円より学んだものだそうで す。一貫斎は、まだ江戸に出る前の文化11年(1814)、大円からオランダから伝わった風砲(ふうほう) の話を聞いて興味を持ち、その構造(こうぞう)を教わって、模型(もけい)の製作に成功していました。
       文政元年(1818)、江戸に出ていた一貫斎は、将軍のおかかえ医師として江戸へ出てきた大円から、将軍家 に伝わるオランダの風砲の修理を頼まれ、1ヶ月あまりでこれを完成しました。
      この風砲は玩具(おもちゃ)で、連続して発射することができず、また弾丸の威力(いりょく)も弱く、武器と いえるものではありませんでした。しかし、一貫斎は風砲の精巧(せいこう)さに感心し火薬を用いず空気の力 で弾丸を発射できるという原理に深い興味を持ちました。火薬は、当時その製造法も十分ではなく、また、原料 も多くはありませんでした。そこで彼は、この風砲の欠点を直し、威力を増すよう改良すれば実際に武器として 使えるようにしたいと考えました。
      それからというもの、彼は、風砲の研究に打ち込み、わずか1年たらずで「早打気砲」の製作に成功しました。 この気砲は、口径1.1cm、銃身75cm、全長140cmのもので、空気圧さくポンプと一対になっており 、オランダ製のものより数十倍の威力があったといわれています。
       
      It was not only Firearms that Ikkansai built as a Gunsmith.

      Ikkansai's in depth knowledge of the Dutch Sciences came mainly from his friend Yamada Daien (1765 - 1831), who was an Opthalmologist in Osaka.

      In 1814, before going to Edo, Ikkansai was fascinated by the story of a Dutch Air Gun which (his friend) Daien told him, and succeeded in making a model.

      In the first year of the Bunsei era, 1818, Ikkansai had been in Edo for some time when his old friend Daien who was now working as a general Doctor for the Shogunal Household, brought a Dutch Air Gun (Property of the Shogun) for repair, (Ikkansai studied it) and in one month it was repaired.

      This Air Gun was not a weapon, more like a Toy which had little power when a bullet was fired, and could not be made to fire consecutively. (On one charge of Air)

      However, Ikkansai was deeply interested in the principle upon which the Air Gun functioned and fascinated by the sophistication of being able to fire bullets without an explosive (Black Powder).

      At the time the (large scale) production of Black Powder was limited as the raw materials were in short supply.

      And so (after some thought) he decided to correct the weaknesses of the Air Gun and increase its power so that it could really be used as a weapon.

      Since then he (Ikkansai) devoted himself to study the Air Gun (in depth) and after one year succeeded in making a repeat firing Gun.

      The Gun had a calibre of 1.1 cm, a barrel of 75 cm and an overall length of 140 cm, paired with a pneumatic pump,it was said to be dozens of times more powerful than its Dutch counterpart.



      一貫斎作の気砲とポンプ

      Air Gun and Pump made by Ikkansai




      気砲のカラクリ

      Air Gun Mechanism



      「気砲記」

      (From the Airgun Manual "Kihou" (of Ikkansai))

      この気砲の製作費は、1挺35~60両と高価なものでしたが、幕府や各藩からの注文が相次ぎました。また、 彼の元には鉄砲製作を志して修行する人が多数集まりました。そこで、これらの人々のために、この気砲の構造 と使用法を解説(かいせつ)した木版刷の「気砲記」を世に出しました。彼は、その後も改良を重ね、天保年間 には、早打ち気砲20連発を作り出しました。


      The orders from the Shogunate and each Clan came one after another, despite the Guns being very expensive to produce at 35 - 60 Ryo per Gun.

      Also he began (to teach?) and many people came to begin (Shooting).

      So, for these people he produced a woodblock printed manual 気砲 "Kihou" which explained the construction and correct usage of his Air Gun.

      He continued to make improvements all through the (early years of) Tenpou Era (1831 - 1845) culminating is a 20 shot repeater (Air Gun).

      <火縄銃製作方法の公開>

      <Disclosure of the methods of Firearm Production>



      「大小御鉄砲張立製作控」

      「Manufacturing methods for large and small Guns」

      一貫斎の鉄砲鍛冶としての功績は、単に鉄砲の製作だけにとどまりませんでした。彼は、文政元年(1818) 元老中・松平定信の依頼により、翌年(1819)「大小御鉄砲張立製作控(だいしょうおんてっぽうはりたて せいさくひかえ)」を著しました。
       当時、ロシアの千島侵略、イギリスの九州への不法入港と外国船による事件が相次ぎ、国を守る上での鉄砲の必 要性がたかまっていました。
       定信は、外国船から国を守るため、鉄砲や大砲の配備を急ぐ必要があると考えていたため、鉄砲の製作法につい て、江戸にいた一貫斎へ問い合わせたのでした。
       一貫斎は、この書の中で、1匁玉筒から10貫目玉筒までの鉄砲生産の詳しい方法だけでなく、材料や使用する 工具の種類まで書き表し、多くの職人に製作の技術を伝え、規格(きかく)を統一(とういつ)し大量生産がで きるように図ったのです。
       今まで、鉄砲の製作は秘伝(ひでん)とされ、親子兄弟であっても、その方法を見せたり語ったりしないことに なっていたので、この本を著したことは画期的(かっきてき)なことでした。

      Ikkansai's achievements did not remain solely as a Gunsmith.

      In 1819, he wrote "Manufacturing methods for large and small guns", at the request of Matsudaira Sadanobu (ex Senior Shogunal Official who just retired in 1818 ).

      At the time, the need for Guns to protect the Country was growing, following Russia's invasion of the Kuril Islands, Great Britain's illegal landing in Kyushu and many other incidents involving foreign vessels followed one after another.

      Ikkansai, who was in Edo (at the time) was contacted by Sadanobu who thought it necessary to speed up the production and deployment of Guns and Cannon to protect the Country from foreign ships.

      Ikkansai's book was comprehensive, covering the methods of mass production of both Guns and Cannon capable of firing bullets and ball from 3.75g to 37.5Kgs, he also specified (in precise detail) the materials required and the number of craftsmen required to accomplish the task.

      Until now (1819) the production methods for making Guns was kept an absolute secret, even parents and children were sworn to secrecy, so this book was Ground Breaking (when published).

      <砲術のマスター>

      <Master of Gunnery>

       一貫斎は、その父から砲術(ほうじゅつ)教育を受け、砲術を知っていなければ、よい鉄砲を製作することがで きないと考えていました。そこで、、一貫斎は若い頃から種子島(たねがしま)流・荻野(おぎの)流・星山( ほしやま)流・米山(よねやま)流などの砲術を学んでいます。また、文政10年(1827)には自得流砲術 の免許皆伝(めんきょかいでん)を受けるほどでした。
       そのため、彼のもとには、鉄砲製作の技術修行のために弟子入りする者も多くいましたが、砲術を学ぶために弟 子となる者もいたほどであったといいます。

      In accordance with the training he received from his father, Ikkansai also believed, that without a firm understanding of Gunnery, he could not make a good Gun.

      So, from childhood Ikkansai had trained in the Gunnery of several schools including Tanegahima Ryu, Ogino Ryu, Hoshiyama Ryu and Yoneyama Ryu.

      Also in 1827, he received the Menkyo Kaiden (highest License of transmission) of the Jitoku Ryu school of Gunnery.

      He had many apprentices, most became students to study the techniques of Gun making, however, it is said that others followed him to study the arts of Gunnery.


      リンクページ3

      Link Page 3

      3.科学者・一貫斎と天体望遠鏡

      3. Ikkansai - The Scientist and his Astronomical Telescope


      科学者としての一貫斎の生涯(しょうがい)の中で、現在でも最も評価(ひょうか)を得ているのは、天体望遠 鏡(てんたいぼうえんきょう)の製作と天体観測です。

      Whilst many aspects of Ikkansai's lifelong study of Science are still being evaluated, the importance of his creation of the first (Reflective) Telescope and his journal of Astronomical studies still has a strong impact upon researchers today.


      <天体望遠鏡との出会い>

      <First encounter with a Astronomical Telescope>




      グレゴリー式反射望遠鏡 構造図

      Structural Diagram of a Gregorian type Telescope

      江戸でオランダ製の天体望遠鏡をはじめて見た時、彼は、自分の知らない未知(みち)の世界におどろき心をう ばわれたのです。彼が見た天体望遠鏡は、江戸に滞在(たいざい)していた文政3年(1820)、成瀬隼人正 (はやとのかみ)宅であったといいます。この時、彼が見た望遠鏡は、イギリス製のグレゴリー式反射(はんし ゃ)望遠鏡であったようです。一貫斎は、この望遠鏡の精巧(せいこう)さに驚(おどろ)くと共に、自らの手 で望遠鏡を製作しようと心に決めました。


      Ikkansai first encountered an example of Dutch Astronomical Telescope (Gregorian type) whilst he was staying in Edo and it opened a new world of possibilities for him.

      It is said that Ikkansai first saw the Astronomical Telescope in 1820 at the Edo Home of (Politician and Shogunate supporter) Naruse Hayato no Kami.

      It was observed to be a British made Gregorian Astronomical Reflector telescope.

      Ikkansai was surprised by the sophistication of the Telescope and determined to make a telescope of his own.

      <天体望遠鏡製作に着手>​​​​​​​

      <The commencement of making an Astronomical Telescope >

      しかし、その後10年余りは家業の鉄砲鍛冶が忙(いそが)しく、望遠鏡の製作には取りかかれませんでした。
       天保3年(1832)、一貫斎が55才のころ、ようやく長年の願いであった天体望遠鏡をつくりはじめました 。

      However, it was 10 years before he (Ikkansai) was able to complete his Telescope due to the heavy workload from his Gunsmithing business.

      It was in 1832 when Ikkansai was 55 years old, that he realised his long cherished dream, and began to work upon his Astronomical Telescope.



      テレスコッフ遠目鏡之図

      Illustration of Reflective Mirror Telescope

      外側の筒やレンズ筒などの真鍮(しんちゅう)部分は、長浜の小兵衛に注文し、一貫斎自身は望遠鏡の生命を左 右する反射鏡とレンズの製作に力を入ました

      The Brass tubes and outer lens mounts were ordered from Kohei of Nagahama (a local precision Metal worker) and Ikkansai himself set to producing the more important items such as the reflective mirrors and lenses.



      自作の天体望遠鏡

      (長浜城歴史博物館 蔵)

      Ikkansai's personal Astronomical Telescope

      (Collection of Nagahama Castle History Museum)


      しかし、書物も指導者(しどうしゃ)もない当時のことですから、すぐれた鉄砲鍛冶の一貫斎でも、苦心と失敗 の連続でした。

      特に、反射鏡は、秘鏡(ひきょう)といわれた「神鏡(しんきょう)」を作った経験(けいけん)をもとに、数 十回の実験をかさねました。銅(どう)と錫(すず)の合金の割合を変えながら、何回も実験をくり返しました 。そして、銅(どう)約65%、錫(すず)約35%がもっとも適していることをつきとめたのです。

       こうしてできあがった反射鏡を磨(みが)きました。一貫斎は、「神に祈り、神の御名を心に念じつつ磨き上げ た」といいます。

       また、レンズは、一貫斎の書き残した書物には、3枚(接眼レンズ1枚、対物レンズ2枚)が必要とありますが 、実際は2枚製作され用いられました。一貫斎は、この製作にも苦心を重ねました。

       このレンズは、形や透明(とうめい)度がすばらしく、他のレンズと比べると水晶レンズに大変似ています。そ れで、水晶レンズが使われていると見られてきましたが、科学的な光学測定の結果、初期のものはソーダー系ガ ラス(酸化ナトリウムが混合されているガラス)が使われており、後に作成されたものはカリ系のガラス(酸化 カリが混合されているガラス)が使われていることがわかりました。
       このように、レンズの材料にも工夫を重ねる一方、レンズの球面の仕上げや欠点の修正の研究にも力を注ぎまし た。
      こうして、一貫斎は、様々な困難を工夫で乗り越え、製作を始めてから1年3ヶ月後の天保4年(1833)1 0月、最初の望遠鏡を完成させ、月と木星の観測を行いました。

       一貫斎の望遠鏡は、反射鏡やレンズまで自ら製作したところに意味があり、その精度(せいど)も幕府天文方( てんもんがた)の間重新(はざまじゅうしん)が、オランダ製の2倍の倍率(ばいりつ)があると驚(おど)い たほどの出来ばえでした。

      However, at that time, there were no books or other sources of guidance and despite his advanced metal working skills as a Gunsmith, it was a series of difficulties and failures.

      He carried out dozens of experiments upon what he referred to as his "Mikusen Shinkyo" Secret mirror in order to perfect the reflector.

      He continued to experiment, whilst continually changing the proportions of the constituents of the alloy.

      Finally, he discovered that a 65% Copper and 35% Tin combination gave the best result.

      He carefully polished the Mirrors that he had made in this way.

      Ikkansai (said) that during the polishing process, he prayed to the Gods and kept his mind in a pure state throughout.


      In addition, although Ikkansai's working drawing illustrates 3 lenses, ( 1 Eyepiece lens and 2 Objective Lenses) he only produced and used 2 Lenses (on his telescope).

      Ikkansai (also wrote) that he struggled severely during their production (of the two lenses).

      His lenses have excellent shape and clarity and compare best with Quartz lenses than others.

      Originally it was believed that (Natural) Quartz was used for the lenses, later, as a result of early Scientific Optical measurement, it was determined that a soda type glass was used, however, now it is more fully understood that glass mixed with Potassium oxide was used for both lenses.

      In this way (Ikkansai) discovered that during the pouring (of the molten glass) he was able to devise ways to minimise defects which he would later correct in polishing to the final spherical form.

      In October of 1833, 1 year and 3 months after beginning, Ikkansai had completed his Telescope and was able to make observations of both the Moon and Jupiter.

      It surprised many to discover that Ikkansai's Telescope was more accurate with finer lenses and mirrors than the Shogunate's Astronomical Telescope and double the magnification of the original Dutch model (Upon which it was based).

      <天体観測と緻密な記録>​​​​​​​

      <A detailed record of Astronomical observations>

      一貫斎が天体観測を開始したのは、最初の望遠鏡が完成した天保(てんぽう)4年(1833)で、10月11 日から11月7日までの間、月と木星を観測した「テレスコップ望遠鏡月木星試(つきもくせいためし)」とい う記録が残っています。

      As soon as the Telescope was completed in 1833, Ikkansai began his detailed observations with his telescope of the Moon and Jupiter, this intense period of scientific observation began of the 11th of October and terminated on the 7th of November, his records of this observation remain.



      月面の観測記録(1836)

      Monthly Observation Record (1836)

      以後、月面観測図は天保7年まで残していますが、その観測図は、見えたことを実に忠実(ちゅうじつ)に記( しる)していて、少しのちがいもはり紙をして訂正(ていせい)しています。望遠鏡が改良(かいりょう)され るごとに記録(きろく)がくわしくなり正確(せいかく)さがましています。

       また、「月面には、山、谷、池、平地などがあり、雪が積(つ)もっているかに見える場所もある」と、月面の クレーターなどの凹凸や影(かげ)を言葉と図で説明(せつめい)もしています。その図は、驚(おどろ)くほ ど正確で、今日の天体望遠鏡で写した写真と比(くら)べても大差(たいさ)のないものです。

      The illustration dated for 1836 is a faithful representation of what Ikkansai observed in 1833 with some adjustments made (by Ikkansai himself) over the years.

      Every time the telescope was used, corrections were made upon the basis of the information noted (By Ikkansai).

      Also Ikkansai wrote that he had observed the surface of the Moon and saw mountains, valleys, flat lands and ponds, he also wrote about the general unevenness (of the terrain) including craters and areas that he thought were capped with snow.

      The drawing (by Ikkansai) is surprisingly accurate and compares favourably with photographs taken using modern astronomical telescopes.



      星之図(1836)

      Star Chart (1836)

      また、彼は、太陽系の惑星(わくせい)の観測も行っています。土星の輪、木星のしま模様(大気の雲の層)や ガリレオ衛星(えいせい)などの5つの衛星、金星が欠けている様子、も観測図に記録されおり、現在とほとん ど変わらない内容となっています。

      He also observed the Planets in the Solar System.

      He also observed (and recorded) five planets, the atmospheric clouds of Jupiter, Saturn's Ring and the Galilean moons , the fact that Venus is missing is also recorded in the journal.

      <世界の天文学史上貴重な太陽の黒点観測>

      < (Ikkansai's) Sunspot observation and its important contribution to World Astronomical History>

       一貫斎の観測の中で、特に有名なことは、太陽黒点(こくてん)の観測です。天保(てんぽう)6年(1835 )1月6日から、同7年2月8日まで、午前8時と午後2時の2回太陽の観測を続け、総観測日数157日、総 回数216回にもおよぶ連続観測を行っています。
       その観測の方法は、黒点の数、位置(いち)、大きさを正確(せいかく)にスケッチし、気づいたことをメモし ていくもので、観測図「日月星業試留(わざためしどめ)」にまとめています。この記録の中で、次のように述 べています。
      ​​​​​​​
      1. 黒点は、温度が低くて、火の燃えていないところである。
      2. 黒点には、黒のところのふちがうすく、にじんだように見える半影(はんえい)がある。
      3. 同じ黒点の形はまだ見ない。数の多い時も少ない時もある。
      4. 黒点は左の下から、右の上へ移っていき、10日前後でかくれる。

      Out of all the many observations that Ikkansai made, his Sunspot Activity observations are by far the most famous.

      The continuous record of Sunspot Activity readings commenced on the 6th of January 1835 and concluded on the 8th of February 1836 (accounting for overcast days), Readings were taken twice a day at 8am and at 2pm, the total number of days logged was 157 with a total 216 readings (subject to visibility).

      In summary, the method of recording involved close observation and then marking down on the Sun, Moon, Star chart, the exact position and size of the Sunspot activity from memory.

      In the record, it states as follows:

      1. The black spot is where the temperature is lower and the fire is not burning.

      2. The edge of the black spot (penumbra) appears to be bleeding to a half shadow. (edge Temperature is slightly higher?)

      3. Ikkansai wrote, that he had not seen the shape of the same Sun spot repeated.

      There were times when they were numerous and times when they were few.

      4. Black spots migrate from bottom left to top right and then are not visible for 10 days. (See Below)





      太陽の黒点連続観測記録(1835)

      Continuous record of Sunspot activity (1835)

      これは、太陽の表面温度と黒点の関係、半影の発見、黒点の変化、太陽の自転など、近代天文学説(てんもんが くせつ)の実証(じっしょう)といえるものです。
       当時の人々は、「太陽の黒点は、地上の土気が天に上がって固まったものである」などと信じていました。これ は、そうした考えをみごとにくつがえしたものでした。

       このような長期にわたる観測と正確な記録は、世界においても、その9年前(1826)ドイツのシュワーベが はじめた観測以外にはありません。また、一貫斎の記録とシュワーベの記録を比較すると常に一定の関係をもっ ていて、一貫斎の記録がいかに正確であったかがわかります。
       一貫斎の記録は、わが国はもちろん世界の天文学史上大切な文献(ぶんけん)とされています

      (Ikkansai's Discoveries) clearly demonstrated many aspects common to modern Astronomy, such as the relationship between the surface temperature of the Sun and Sunspots, the discovery of the penumbra (fade), the physical changes in Sunspots and also the rotation of the Sun itself.

      The Folk belief, common in those days, was that earth (soil) rose through the heavens to the Sun and solidified as black spots. (The Earth (planet) feeding the Sun)

      (Ikkansai's clear observations) perfectly overturned such superstitious concepts.

      Ikkansai's observations and discoveries (upon Sunspot activity) were the first in the World, apart from those initiated by the German Astonomer, Schwabe, nine years previously in 1826.

      In addition, by comparing Schwabe and Ikkansai's notes and journals, it is remarkable the similarity in their individual discoveries and how accurate Ikkansai's were.

      The accuracy of Ikkansai's discoveries is of great importance to World Astronomy as well as his native Japan.

      <国友村を救った望遠鏡>​​​​​​​

      <The Telescope that saved Kunitomo Village>

      天保7年(1836)は、5、6月ごろより全国的に天候が不順(ふじゅん)で、米の作柄(さくがら)が大変 悪くなりました。そのため、米の値段(ねだん)は大変高くなり、全国な大飢饉(だいききん)がおこりました 。世にいう「天保の大飢饉(だいききん)」です。

       国友村でも、作柄が悪い上に、姉川が氾(はん)らんし、田畑が濁流(だくりゅう)にのまれ危機(きき)に見 まわれました。もともと鍛冶職人が多く、農民の少ない村の食料事情は他の村以上でした。村人たちは、餓死( がし)寸前(すんぜん)にまで追い込まれたのです。

      この時、一貫斎は、片時(かたとき)も忘れることのなかった天体観測を断念(だんねん)し、愛用してきた天 体望遠鏡を各地の大名に売り、国友村の人々を救(すく)いました。彼は、「天、遂(つい)に人の努力(どり ょく)を無(む)にせず」と叫(さけ)び、苦労して作った望遠鏡が村人たちの役に立ったことを神仏(しんぶ つ)のおかげと感謝(かんしゃ)したと伝えられています。

      In May and June of 1836, the weather nationwide was extremely bad and as a result the Rice crop failed.

      As a result, the price of Rice rose dramatically and a nationwide famine ensued.

      It was known to the World as "The Great Tenpo Famine".

      Kunitomo Village was also very badly affected when the Anegawa River overflowed, flooding the fields and destroying the crops.

      Because the village was comprised mostly of Gunsmiths and Craftsmen, there were few farmers and as a result the village fared worse than others. (For locally grown supplies).

      As a result, the Villagers (of Kunitomo) were driven to the verge of starvation.

      At this time, Ikkansai abandoned his astronomical studies and sold his beloved telescope to the Daimyo in order to save the people of Kunitomo Village.

      It is reported that Ikkansai visited a local Shinto shrine and prayed to the Gods (On behalf of the Villagers), he said that he could not let the suffering of the people of his village go unaided and that the creation of the telescope and all his other blessings was a result of their support.

      現存する一貫斎が製作した望遠鏡は、国友町の国友家、長野県の上田市立博物館、彦根の井伊家伝来品(彦根城 博物館)、市立長浜城歴史博物館の合計4基が知られています。

      There are four known Ikkansai Telescopes in existence, they are currently held by: The Kunitomo Family in Kunitomo, Nagahama Castle History Museum, Hikone Castle Museum and Ueda City Museum in Nagano Prefecture.


      There are a number of links in a box on this page, but all of them are dead.


      リンクページ4

      Link Page 4

      4.その他の業績

      4. Other achievements

      一貫斎は、鉄砲づくりの名工(めいこう)にとどまらず、発明家としても数々の業績(ぎょうせき)を残してい ます。
       江戸から帰った一貫斎は、新しい知識と自らの独創的(どくそうてき)なアイデアで次々とすばらしい発明をし ています。

      Although Ikkansai remains as "The Master Gunmaker" his other accomplishments as an inventor are worth similar accolade.

      On his return from Edo, Ikkansai's creativity knew no bounds, armed with his new found knowledge, (of the Western Sciences - via Rangaku) he created one marvellous invention after another.

      お も な 発 明 品

      Unexpected Inventions


      「鋼製弩弓(どきゅう)」

      「 Steel Crossbow」


      老中松平定信の依頼で、連発可能な弓を作成しました。この弩弓は、特殊(とくしゅ)な焼き入れをした鋼(は がね)を使っており、40~50mも飛び、強い弓と同じ威力(いりょく)があったといいます。

      Ikkansai created a repeater Crossbow, at the request of Shogunal Council Elder: Matsudaira Sadanobu.

      The crossbow was made of hard tempered Steel and had an effective range of 40 to 50 metres, it was said to be as powerful as a strong long bow.




      「神鏡(しんきょう)」
      ​​​​​​​
      国友町日吉神社所蔵


      「 Sacred Shrine Mirrors 」

      Property of Hiyoshi Shrine Kunitomo Town

      見たところ普通の鏡ですが、太陽の光線を受けると鏡の裏の紋様(もんよう)が表面に浮(う)かび出てくる不 思議な鏡です。
       これは、水戸徳川家に秘蔵(ひぞう)されていました。
      学者にもその原理がわかりませんでしたが、それを修理し、その後同様のものを作成して水戸家や神社に贈って います。

      Although it appears to be a normal Sacred Shrine Mirror, when the rays of the Sun hit the back, it behaves in a most mysterious way and the pattern (of the Shide wand) on the back appears to float slightly away from the surface.

      This was a treasured heirloom of the Mito Tokugawa family.

      At first, despite his scholarship, (Ikkansai) did not understand the principle upon which the mirror worked, but after repairing an earlier version, he was able to reproduce the effect and presented examples to both the Mito Family and the Shrine.




      「懐中筆(かいちゅうひつ)」

      「 Writing Brush 」


      現在でいえば万年筆に当たるものです。
      筆のじくの部分に綿がつめられていて、スポイトを使って墨汁(ぼくじゅう)をしみこませます。
      筆先の出し加減で墨の濃さが調節できます。

      It operates in a similar manner to a modern Fountain Pen.

      Ink is applied to the cotton filled barrel of the brush by the use of a syringe.

      Ink density is controlled by fine adjustments of the brush head itself.



      「玉燈(ぎょくとう)」

      「Jewel Lamp 」


      照明器具の一種で、水の上に油を浮かし、燈芯(とうしん)に火をつけます。
      普通の皿燈に比べ、油を経済的(けいざいてき)に使い、しかも明るくできています。

      A special kind of Lamp, where the wick is suspended in Oil which is floating on the surface of Water.

      Compared with normal dish lamps, the oil is used far more economically and the illumination is much brighter.


      NO ILLUSTRATION

      「町間見積遠眼鏡(ちょうけんみつもりとおめがね)」

      「Distance Measurement Telescope」

      距離測定器の一種です。従来の測定器にレンズなどをつけ、改良したものです。
      精巧で、性能はオランダ製のものと同じで、値段は10分の1(2両余り)だったといいます。

      It was an type of Optical Distance measurement instrument.

      Ikkansai was actually modifying and existing instrument by the addition of lenses etc.

      It was said to be an elaborate construction and performed as well as its Dutch counterpart, but at one tenth of the cost (Approximately 2 Ryo).




      一貫斎は、こうした数々の発明以外にも、「水揚げ」(ポンプの一種)や「鉄砂吹分法」などの工夫考案をしま した。

       また、現在の飛行機・飛行船の構想(こうそう)も抱いていましたが、残念ながらこれは実用にはいたりません でした。

      In addition to his numerous inventions, Ikkansai also devised a water pump and a device for blowing Iron Sand. (Something like the Bessemer process?)

      He also investigated concepts similar to that of the modern aeroplane and airship, however these designs were not practical.




      町会館前に建つ
      一貫斎の顕彰碑​​​​​​​


      The monument in honour of Ikkansai, situated in front of the (Kunitomo) Town Hall.

      一貫斎は、もともと優(すぐ)れた鉄砲鍛冶であり、科学的な思考態度(しこうたいど)を持つ人物でした。し かし、それだけではこの偉大(いだい)な業績(ぎょうせき)を残すことはできなかったでしょう。
       彼はその手記(しゅき)に、「新規(しんき)ノ細工(さいく)五度十度仕損(しぞこない)シハ常也(なり) 。此(この)仕損度々聊(いささか)タリ共近寄也。[新しい仕事は、5回や10回失敗することは常(つね) である。失敗のうちに少しずつ成功に近づいていくものである]」と書いていますが、失敗をくり返しながらも 、たゆまぬ努力を怠(おこた)らなかったことが、彼の仕事を支えた最大の力でした。望遠鏡の製作に着手(ち ゃくしゅ)したのは、55歳であったというのも、晩年(ばんねん)まで探究心を失わず努力を続けていた科学 者一貫斎の姿(すがた)を示しています。

      Ikkansai began as a superior Gunsmith and developed into a great scientist and thinker.

      It is impossible to overlook his single achievement against that of the whole (of his lifetimes work).

      In his journals he wrote of the ratio of his successes, and that often almost half of his experiments and attempts were written off.

      This sort of damage was fairly commonplace to the type of work (Undertaken).

      Often with new work, the failure rate was often 5 to 10 attempts.

      Ikkansai wrote, that often, it was a matter of little by little as he approached success, and that his greatest strength lay in the fact that, no matter how many times he failed, his resolve was not lessened and he would doggedly continue until success was achieved.

      Ikkansai's genius and strength of will was exemplified by the fact that, although he did not commence work on his telescope until he was 55 years old, his faculties and determination did not diminish with age until his very last years.

      リンクページ5

      Link Page 5

      5.一貫斎 略年譜

      5. Important Dates in Ikkansai's Life

      西暦.... 年号......... 年齢.............................................. 事          績
      1778 安永7  1歳 10月3日に坂田郡国友村(いまの長浜市国友町)に生まれる。幼名を藤一という。
      1786 天明6  9歳 父の名をついで藤兵衛を名のる。
      1794 寛政6 17歳 9代目藤兵衛年寄脇として鉄砲鍛冶職をつぐ。
      1811 文化8 34歳 彦根藩御用掛となり、200目玉大筒をつくる。
      彦根事件おこる。
      1814 文化11 37歳 友人山田大円からオランダ風砲の構造を教わり、その模型を製作する。
      1816 文化13 39歳 彦根事件で江戸へむかう。このころ平田篤胤と親交を結ぶ。
      1817 文化14 40歳 彦根事件が解決する。
      1818 文政元 41歳 山田大円宅で、将軍家のオランダ風砲をはじめて見る。
      「大小御鉄砲張立製作控」を著わす。
      距離測定機を製作する。
      1819 文政2 42歳 最初の風砲が完成し、「気砲」と名づける。
      「気砲記」「風砲弁記」を著わす。
      1820 文政3 43歳 成瀬隼人宅で、オランダ製天体望遠鏡をはじめて見る。
      1821 文政4 44歳 江戸より帰国する。
      1824 文政7 47歳 「神鏡」をつくる。
      1828 文政11 51歳 「懐中筆」、「玉燈」を考案する。
      1829 文政12 52歳 鋼製弩弓が完成する。
      1832 天保3 55歳 天体望遠鏡の製作に着手する。
      1833 天保4 56歳 天体望遠鏡が完成し、観測をはじめる。
      1834 天保5 57歳 月の観測をおこなう。
      1835 天保6 58歳 正月から太陽の黒点観測をはじめ、15ヵ月の間毎日のように観測をつづける。
      1836 天保7 59歳 天候不順のために米価が急騰し、経済的に打撃をうけた国友村を救済しようと望遠鏡を売る。
      1840 天保11 63歳 自宅にて死去。
      (資料提供:国友鉄砲の里資料館)

      (Provided by the Kunitomo Gun Museum)
      C. E. Era Age Achievements
      1778 An - Ei 7 1 Born October 3rd in the village of Kunitomo, Sakata County: Now part of Nagahama City. Named Touichi
      1786 Temmei 6 9 Granted his Father's name of Toubei and the use of the Art name Ikkansai.
      1794 Kansei 6 17 Granted the title of Toshiyori Elder and becomes 9th generation Master of the Gun Forge
      1811 Bunka 8 34 Hikone Incident occurs as a result of being personally requested to make a 200 monme calibre Gun by the Hikone Clan
      1814 Bunka 11 37 Learns about the structure of a Dutch Airgun from his friend Yamada Daien and constructs a model
      1816 Bunka 13 39 Invited to Edo by the Shogunate , as a witness in the Hikone Incident, makes friends with the author and nationalist Hirata Atsutane
      1817 Bunka 14 40 Hikone incident is resolved and the guilty are punished
      1818 Bunsei 1 41 Repairs the Shogun's Dutch Airgun and begins development of his own versions. Invents a modification to a distance measurement tool (based upon an existing Dutch example)
      1819 Bunsei 2 42 Ikkansai's Airgun is completed - Publishes his manual "Manufacturing methods for large and small guns", at the request of Matsudaira Sadanobu
      1820 Bunsei 3 43 First encounter with a Dutch Astronomical Telescope at Naruse Hayata no Kami's house
      1821 Bunsei 4 44 Leaves Edo to return to Kunitomo
      1824 Bunsei 7 47 Makes a "Miracle" Shrine Mirror
      1828 Bunsei 11 51 Invents a writing brush and a special Lamp
      1829 Bunsei 12 52 His steel repeating crossbow is completed
      1832 Tenpo 3 55 Begins making his Astronomical Telescope
      1833 Tenpo 4 56 Completes his Astronomical Telescope and begins his observations
      1834 Tenpo 5 57 Begins his observations of the Moon
      1835 Tenpo 6 58 Begins observing Sunspot activity in the New year which continues daily for 15 months
      1836 Tenpo 7 59 As a result of the great National Famine, he sells his telescopes to buy Rice in order to save the starving population of Kunitomo
      1840 Tenpo 11 63 Dies peacefully at Home
      Provided by the Kunitomo Gun Museum


      リンクページ6

      ​​​​​​​
      Link Page 6

      6.一貫斎関連リンク集

      6. Ikkansai Related Links

      このページには機能しなくなったリンク、またはマルウェアとして報告されたリンクが含まれています。

      ​​​​​​​This page contains links which no longer work, or flag as malware.

      Ueda City Database
         (2048055) 長野県上田市マルチメディア情報センターのページです。一貫斎の天体望遠鏡が紹介されています。
      「ちょんまげ頭で見た天体」
      第1回 /第2回 /第3回
      第4回 /第5回 /第6回
      エピローグ
      Asuteroido home pageは、日本スペースガード協会の機関誌「あすてろいど」のWeb Pageです。 その会報に、上田市教育委員会の渡辺文雄氏が「ちょんまげ頭で見た天体」 と題して国友一貫斎のついての論文を連載されています。
      日本、初の反射望遠鏡 「 Astro Photo Club(加藤保美さん)」の「コーヒーブレイク」のコーナーの「日本、初の反射望遠鏡」に、国友一貫斎の 望遠鏡が図と写真で紹介されています。
      江戸の望遠鏡、輝き衰えず
        URL現在不明 神戸市立青少年科学館のページです。一貫斎の天体望遠鏡関連の新聞記事を公開されています。
      江戸時代の天文屋 横浜こども科学館の天文民族学のページです。江戸時代は、日本の科学技術の時代とも言われます。 江戸時代の天文学者は、幕府の天文方ばかりではありません。 民間や地方の技術者たちの粋をごらんください。
      江戸時代の天文学
      富山市天文台のページです。「天文の部屋」のページでは、今、見える星座から江戸時代の天文学まで幅広く紹 介されています。
      望遠鏡自作リンク 友田 哲さんによる自作望遠鏡のペ-ジ「☆望遠鏡を作ろう☆」のリンク集です。自作望遠鏡が掲載されているページ や、望遠鏡について解説しているページへリンクされています。
      善兵衛ランドのご案内 URL変更 18世紀の後半に多くの屈折望遠鏡を製作した、岩橋善兵衛を記念して作られた天文台「善兵衛ランド」のペー ジです。大阪府貝塚市のページの中にあります。
      万年筆の歴史
         (1748~1883) 川窪万年筆店のページです。国友一貫斎作「御懐中筆」が専門的に紹介されています。
      小惑星「Kunitomoikkansai
      (国友一貫斎)」 「AstroSquare 天空の館」のページです。藤田誠史さんが、ダイニックアストロパーク天究館の許可を得て、小惑星「kuni tomoikkansai」のデーターを公開されています。


      インターネットに掲載されている資料の教育目的でのご利用に長浜市と国友銃博物館に感謝します。

      この情報の多くはもともと1998年に著作権を保持している広部秀夫氏Hirobe Hideo氏によって照合され書かれたものです。

      ​​​​​​​
      Thanks to Nagahama City and Kunitomo Gun Museum for the use for educational purposes of materials posted on the internet.

      Much of this information was originally collated and written in 1998 by Mr Hideo Hirobe who retains the Copyright.
      Pip Pip Cheerio

      Malcolm

      Comment


      • #4
        Article 3:

        http://www7b.biglobe.ne.jp/~kunitomo...ta/bungei.html


        The Japanese text used here, from the website shown above is for educational purposes only, from materials posted on the internet. Copyright is retained by the original author.

        Literary works relating to Kunitomo Ikkansai




        ―― Desiring the Moon ――

        By Mr Nishi Kouichirou (Author)

        It is a long story with Kunitomo Ikkansai featuring as the main character, published by Kodansha on the 8th of November 2012.

        Winner of the "Best Newcomer Award" at the 7th Grand Prix sponsored by Kodansha.

        In the last years of the Warring States period (Sengoku 1467 - 1600), the tiny Village of Kunitomo in Omi Province, became the main area of Gun production in all Japan; however with the "Great Peace under Heaven" of the Edo period (1603 - 1867/68) the orders for Guns dwindled, as a result of this four families created a trade co-operative to control and profit from what orders might remain, as the years went by this system fell into disrepute, caused in the main by laziness and a suspicious fear that the requirement for Guns might cease altogether.

        Kunitomo Toubei (Ikkansai), although he is born into a life of comfort and privilege as a senior Gunsmith (Toshiyori) Of the Village of Kunitomo, struggles, with single minded determination to break free of the laziness, petty jealousy and lack of enterprise that has beset the other Gunsmiths.

        Leaving his remote village on the shores of Lake Biwa, Toube travels to Edo having lost his first love "Sayo" who is from a poor family and has been sold into service (by her parents) in the Gion pleasure quarters of Kyoto.

        By the light of the Full Moon, Toubei makes a spiritual connection with Sayo's heart and being.

        Confident in the Spiritual bond and the support of his peers, Toubei becomes charged with a new fire of determination to become stronger as a craftsman, and eager to take on whatever challenges and hardships may occur.

        Nishi San weaves the epic tale of a true Craftsman, Kunitomo Toubei Ikkansai , his struggles and his scientific discoveries, inspired by the Dutch teachings, and vividly presents it to a contemporary audience.

        Mr Nishi spent 13 arduous, solitary years, researching and writing, exerting every ounce of his power in order to bring the story of Toubei's struggle to life on the page.

        This is also a book based upon in - depth forensic investigation, following closely in Toubei's footsteps to reveal both his character and the turbulent times in which he lived.

        About the Author Mr Koichiro Nishi――

        Born January 1955 in Toyama Prefecture.

        His family consists of a loving wife and also a pet dog.

        After graduating from Zoukei University in Tokyo, he worked for both Advertisement Production Companies and Advertising Agencies, winning several major Awards.

        He became independent and set up his own Company, acting as both Art Director and CM Planner; later, the Company was dissolved.

        This was to fully devote his time to writing and follow his dream of becoming a Novelist.

        Although he wrote widely in the genres of Mystery, Romance and Fantasy; applied for Literary Awards, he was met with rejection after rejection.

        In 2012, three years after switching to period novels "Desiring the Moon" was awarded the Grand Prize of Best Newcomer at the 7th Kodansha Awards ceremony, this was out of 914 entries; later a major debut was decided upon at the 8th Contemporary Novelist Awards in July of the same year.

        Shortly thereafter he won the 4th Asahi Period Novel Award with "The Tiger with No Name".

        This year he won his second successive award and continues to work extremely hard on his literary projects.

        After receiving the Award, he has located to Yamanashi Prefecture in order to write about it.

        Next, in May of 2013 "The Tiger with No Name" and "Desiring The Moon" won the Best Newcomer prize at the 2nd Historic Writers Club Awards.

        [Major Works]

        "The Tiger with No Name" (Asahi Shinbun Publishing November 2012)

        "Desiring The Moon" (Kodansha November 2012)

        "Pathway of the Jade Cocoon" (Asahi Shinbun Publishing October 2013)

        "The Honourable Mr Dragonfly" (Gentosha May 2014)

        "Matsuhime Goes On" (Haruki Kadokawa Office July 2014)

        "Iyeyasu's Will" (Kodansha March 2015)
        Pip Pip Cheerio

        Malcolm

        Comment


        • #5
          Article 4:

          This is the book that was mentioned in the first translation article "In 2015, Naoki literary prizewinning author, Mr Yamamoto Ken'ichi (1965 - 2014) had published (Posthumously) a novel about the life and times of Ikkansai entitiled: Yume Makoto Ni - "Making Dreams Come True", this provided momentum for the increased re evaluation (of Kunitomo Ikkansai's importance) by Nagahama City."





          "Making Dreams Come True"

          Created by Mr Yamamoto Kenichi.

          Published by Bungeishunju on February 15th 2015.


          From July 2012 to June of the following year, 341 stories featuring Kunitomo Ikkansai as the hero were serialised in various local newspapers, including: Niigata Daily News, Yamagata Shinbun, Kyoto Shinbun and the Nagasaki Shinbun.

          A central motif of the Novel concerns the "Yume Taka" drawing which is the only known portrait of Ikkansai.

          There is always a reason for everything, and even though it seems impossible, one day people will fly in the sky.

          Ikkansai cultivated an indomitable spirit and faith in himself, capable of withstanding the dozens of failures and setbacks he was to encounter, in pursuit of his dream to become the perfect Gunsmith.

          Although he was inadvertently caught up in a lawsuit which sent him to Edo, he realised that this was a blessing in disguise.

          And so, the man from Kunitomo, in faraway Omi, scoured the districts of Edo in search of the best craftsmen and men of high ideals, who would transform his own Heart and physical skills.

          He cultivated an unquenchable thirst for knowledge and acquired new skills quickly through his endless experiments.

          To be able to work and create something of value makes life a pleasure.

          He was overflowing with ideas, not just to merely make imitations of European items, but to improve upon them or create things that were new and uniquely Japanese.

          Ikkansai took up the challenge to make the first Japanese Reflecting Telescope, even though he had no idea how to accomplish it.

          He said: "Dreams have the power to excite and inspire people."

          The enquiring spirit of Ikkansai, Japan's Leonardo Da Vinci, and his contributions to modern Astronomy are vividly portrayed here by Naoki Literary Award winner Mr Kenichi Yamamoto.

          Mr Yamamoto visited Kunitomo Town many times to examine old documents and research the accurate aspects of the era in which Ikkansai lived.

          Mr Kazumi Hirose of the same Town was responsible for the creation of a replica Telescope at a research centre for Firearms, not only explained the manufacturing process of a Telescope but also demonstrated how to fire a Matchlock Gun.

          Sadly, Mr Yamamoto passed away in 2014, so this was his last major novel.

          About the Author Mr Kenichi Yamamoto

          Born in Kyoto on 23rd of July 1956.

          The eldest son of Mr Yuichi (Kazuichi) Yamamoto, a senior researcher of the works of the Poet Bassho.

          (Attended) Doshisha University, Faculty of Letters,Department of Culture, Department of Aesthetics and Arts.

          After graduation he worked in Publishing and became a freelance writer at the age of 30.

          At first he wrote about contemporary things.

          All through his 30's he continued to apply for awards but was unsuccessful, however in 1999 he was accorded an honourable mention in the 150th issue Commemorative Short story awards with "Hawk of Justice".

          He made his debut (with a full novel) in 2002 with "Secret teachings of the Sengoku White Hawk".

          In 2004 he won the 11th Matsumoto Seiji Award for "Castle under Fiery Skies".

          The book was nominated for the 132nd Naoki Literary Awards (2004) and was later (2009) made into a film, directed by Mitsutoshi Tanaka and starring Toshiyuki Nishida.

          In 2008 " The outstanding journal of the Senior Bride" was nominated for the 139th Naoki Literary Awards.

          In 2006. "Ask this of Rikyu" was serialised in "History Highway" (a Monthly magazine by PHP Interface) and later, in 2008 it won the 140th Naoki Literary prize.

          Later (2013) it was made into a Movie, Directed by Mitsutoshi Tanaka and starring (amongst others) Ebizou Ichikawa.

          Besides that, many of his works were nominated for prizes and he has become firmly established as "The" period novelist.

          He built up a firm reputation for both historical era accuracy and technical accuracy in his depictions of craftsmen.

          He was diagnosed with Lung Cancer in October 2012 and Hospitalized.

          He continued to write whilst fighting the illness, but the condition of his upper left lung worsened in December and on the 13th of February 2014 he passed away in a hospital in Kyoto.

          He was 57 years old.

          "Making Dreams come true" was scheduled to be published in 2014, but it was postponed until the following year.

          The last serialisation "Heian Rakudo" was never finished, despite the author sending the latest instalment to his editor at the monthly magazine "Chuuoukouron" barely 5 and a half hours before he passed away.


          [Major Works]

          "Secret Teachings of the Sengoku White Hawk". (Shoudensha - April 2002)

          "Castle Under Fiery Skies" ( Bungeishunju - June 2004)

          "Barrel of the Thunder God" (Shueisha - November 2006)

          "Kotetsu's True Heart" (Bungeishunju - April 2007)

          "Hawk of Justice" (Shoudensha - July 2007)

          " The Outstanding Journal of the Senior Bride" (Bungeishunju - May 2008)

          "The Craziness of Masamune and his Sword Dealer Choujiya Kousaburou" (Kodansha - August 2008)

          "Ask this of Rikyu" (PHP Interface - November 2008)

          "Notes on the Discovery of the Islands of Zhipangu" (Shuueisha - July 2009)

          " The Outstanding Journal of Eemon's Toolshop" (Bungeishunju - June 2010)

          "I do not Need a Life, nor a Name" (Two Volumes NHK Publications March 2010)

          "Silver Island" (Asahi Shinbun Publications June 2011)

          "The Picture Scroll of the Sacred Square" (Chuokoron - Shinsha - July 2011)

          "The Golden Sword of the Sword Dealer Choujiya Kousaburou" (September 2011)

          "The Outstanding Journal of the Red Bowl" (Bungeishunju - November 2011)

          "I am Kiyomaro" (Shoudensha - March 2012)

          "Nobunaga's Death" Kadokawa Shoten - June 2012)

          "Chiyohime the Dark Marishiten" (PHP Interface - November 2012)

          "The Landscape of Rikyu" (Tankosha - December 2012)

          "The Flowerbird's Dream" (Bungeishunju - April 2013)

          "The Carnage of Sekigahara" (Shueisha - July 2014)

          "Death Pact in the Yoshiwara Autumn Rain" (Kadokawa Haruki Corporation - October 2014)

          "Making Dreams Come True" (Bungeishunju - February 2015)
          Pip Pip Cheerio

          Malcolm

          Comment


          • #6
            Article 5:




            "Kunitomo Toubei - A Novel"

            Created by Mr Yoshimaru Kunitomo

            It was published on the 1st of March 1986, as "Hometown Culture Series 1" and distributed by the Kunitomo Bookstore.

            It's a long story with Kunitomo Ikkansai as the hero, and was originally serialised in the Shiga Times (Newspaper) from January to October 1983.

            Gunnery Historian Mr Seiho Arima included "The Story of Ikkansai Kunitomo Toubei" in his Omnibus work.

            As the great peace of the Edo period continued, orders from the Shogunate decreased, resulting in a long slow decline into poverty for many of the Gun craftsmen of Kunitomo village.

            Some people, unable to make a living, were forced to leave the Village.

            In contrast to this, the four senior families who were each headed by a Toshiyori elder, lived lives of luxury, at the expense of their workers.

            In order to crush this climate of arrogance and idleness, Ikkansai and the Hikone Clan cooperate and secretly weave a strategy.

            Amidst the turbulent background of Foreign incursions onto Japanese soil, Ikkansai broke the accepted practice of the Village and personally accepted an order for a Large Gun, directly ignoring the Toshiyori Elders of the four ruling families.

            The Toshiyori Elders were dismayed to lose their vested interests.

            Ikkansai and his supporters strive together to overcome the twin factions of the Toshiyori Elders and their families whilst producing a gun which will be able to hold its own against the cannon aboard the Foreign Ships.

            Ikkansai's departure for Edo is overshadowed by the threat of Assassins being dispatched.

            Will, the day come when the strategy is successful and a new way begins in Kunitomo Village...?

            Since its publication, some time ago, the Novel has become quite a rare book and hard to find.

            Although many of the scenes are fictional, the author, who is also a member of the Kunitomo Gun Research Group has interspersed a great deal of his considerable technical knowledge of both Guns, the Edo period and its major characters into the story of Ikkansai.


            About The Author - Mr Yoshimaru Kunitomo

            Born in 1941, in Kunitomo Town, Nagahama City, Shiga Prefecture.

            Graduated from the Department of Letters, Faculty of Literature, Kokugakuin University.

            "In addition to running the family business selling Firearms and Gunpowder, he also served as director of a local Boys Sports Club, he was also engaged in a number of municipal groups including membership of the Nagahama City Council, Nagahama 21 Civic Conference Secretariat and the Nagahama Fireworks Association.

            He was later appointed chairman of the East Nagahama Rotary Club and for many years worked on the development of Nagahama City with particular emphasis upon nurturing the young with Sporting abilities.
            Pip Pip Cheerio

            Malcolm

            Comment


            • #7
              Article 6:

              Here at long last is the transliteration of the sequence - "The operation of the Air Gun", from the Ikkansai's manual:

              The web page is available here:

              http://www7b.biglobe.ne.jp/~kunitomo...ta/jyuhou.html

              The translation of the page displayed on the internet is for educational use only.

              Copyright is retained by:

              Copyright (C) 2010-2019. Kimagure - suiryuu, All Rights Reserved.


              Making the Guns of Kunitomo Ikkansai.

              1. Production of the "Kihou" Air Gun

              "Kihou" is the name Ikkansai gave to his Air Gun.

              It is said that the invention of the Air Gun in Europe was inspired by the simple Blow Pipe.

              It is said that the arrival of the first Dutch Air Gun took place in the first year of the Kan'ei era (1624 - 1644) as a gift to the Tokugawa Shogunate, however the precise date is not documented.

              According to Ikkansai's Book, the Air Gun was called "Uindoruur" (By the Dutch).

              It is written as "Windroer" in Dutch.

              Ikkansai began writing his Air Gun Bookin the twelfth year of the Bunka Era (1814).

              It was Yamada Daien, who was, at the time, an Ophthalmologist in Kyoto who fostered his interest in the Air Gun.

              It was in this year that Ikkansai obtained accurate information about Western Air Guns from Daien.

              Although the nature of the information from Daien is unknown, it is possible that it emanated from an illustration of an Air Gun in a book that had entered Japan at the same time.

              Using the information from Daien, he embarked upon an in depth study of Air Guns and began making prototypes.

              The following year, the prototype was almost complete, when a commission came from Ogasawara Sagami no Kami Nagataka on behalf of a group in Osaka.

              Then, although production had already begun, the Hikone incident occurred and as Ikkansai was ordered to attend proceedings in Edo, the project was cancelled.

              In his own handwriting " Notes on how to make an Air Gun"

              (In his own words)

              "It was in the 11th year of the Bunka era, the year of the Dog (1814), that I met with the respected Mr Daien Yamada, who had much knowledge of the ways of the Dutch people and it was he who showed me drawings (of an Air Gun) which I felt I could certainly make a working model of."

              "It was in the spring of the Tiger year in the new era of Bunsei (1818) that both I and my good friend, the respected Mr Daien attended a celebration at a senior Lord's residence, it was here I examined the aforementioned Dutch Air gun, I resolved that when I returned to Kunitomo Village, I would gratefully fulfil the request that the respected Lord Ogasawara Sagami no Kami of Osaka had requested me to produce so many years ago."

              As written in the previous sentence, Ikkansai left for Edo where the respected Mr Daien was also now working, and it was he gave (Ikkansai) the opportunity to examine and repair a real Dutch Air Gun which was in the possession of a senior Shogunal official, Kyougoku Takamasa.

              It was the famous original Dutch Air Gun owned by the Shogun's Family. (Presented in the 1640's)

              Although the Air Gun had not been working for a long time, there was evidence that many craftsmen had attempted repairs over the years, but these repairs had actually worsened the condition of the gun, causing great concern about its condition, as no craftsman in Edo was capable of making it safe.

              Fortunately, however, Ikkansai had relocated to Edo and soon after Mr Daien relocated there too, using his connections Mr Daien arranged for a meeting with Shogunal Senior Inspector Nakagawa Hida No Kami and Ikkansai and discussions about repairing the Air Gun took place.

              In October of the first year of the Bunsei era (1818).

              He disassembled the Air Gun and made a detailed series of Engineering sketches.


               


              (Sketches of the Dutch Air Gun signed "Scheiffel" - From the Journals of Kunitomo Ikkansai.

              "Scheiffel" in the sketch is said to be the name of a Dutch Firearms manufacturer of the late 1700's.


              It is uncertain whether this refers to a Brand or an individual Gunsmith.

              If the latter is the case, then it is inconsistent with the story that Ikkansai repaired the Air Gun that was gifted in the Kanei era (1624 - 1644).

              The respected Shogunal Official Mr Takehisa Kyogoku had been told much of Ikkansai's skils by Mr Daien, however as a precaution he demanded that a prototype be constructed and if this was successful then he would allow Ikkansai to repair the Shogun's Air Gun.

              Ikkansai respectfully thanked the Shogunal Official for his concern and by way of reassurance, showed him the detailed drawings that he had made for the prototype back in Kunitomo, this convinced the Shogunal official of his competance, who immediately gave him permission and the task was completed in a little over a month.

              Ikkansai mentions in his notebook, that he stayed at Mr Daien's house whilst repairing the Air Gun and that funds were only sufficient to cover the cost of materials, Charcoal, Iron etc; nonetheless, Ikkansai undertook the work with vigour and fortitude.
              ​​
              Ikkansai scrupulously tested the repaired Airgun and concluded: "It is not something that can be used as a Weapon"

              The first shot had enough power to penetrate an old wooden door, but the second shot lacked power and was likened to blowing paper through a bamboo tube, the compressed Air was completely depleted and Ikkansai concluded that this was really no more than a child's toy.


              Ikkansai was impressed by the principle of the Air Gun and its ability to fire lead balls by the pressure of Air alone, however he was determined to Improve its performance by enhancing the power and create the ultimate practical weapon, not a mere imitation, but far beyond the scope of existing Air Guns.

              A short time after the repair was completed, Ikkansai received a commission from the respected Kyougoku Takamasa for the production of a full sized original Air Gun, construction began on the first day of November in the first year of the Bunsei era (1818) and was completed, ready for delivery the following year on the 9th of March (1819).

              This was the first domestically produced Air Gun.

              The Air Gun was 1.42 metres long with a bore diameter of 11 millimetres which corresponded to a calibre of 1 monme 5 bu, both the iron barrel (and Air tank which served as both hand grip and buttstock) were clad with Sandalwood Bark and the hammer was decorated with a Fox head.


              (Illustration From Wikipedia)

              He named it "Kihou" - Air - Energy Gun as opposed to "Fuu Hou" Air Cannon.

              "It is a phenomenal Gun which performs very well" A great series of technical advances.

              Also he measured the atmospheric pressure every cycle of 100 pumps.

              In Japan at the time, there was no concept of Air pressure, instead, Ikkansai thought of it as a weight and accurately weighed the Vessels which contained the pressurised Air, he then calculated the quantity and thus manufacture safely.

              By the production of the "Kihou" Air Gun, Ikkansai realised that the principles of Air pressure could be applied to other inventions in the World (See the section on inventions and innovation later, particularly the widespread use of the automatic lubricating lamp.).

              The "Kihou" Air Gun out performed the Dutch model by tens of times in all aspects of it production, however his sponsor, the respected Kyougoku Tsunemasa warned Ikkansai that when the Military and Political potential of the Air weapon was realised, it was likely that the Shogunate would ban its production for sale openly, indeed, no less that the respected Ogasawara Sagami no Kami made a special trip to Edo and requested immediate production of a Kihou for himself before any ban could be implemented.

              It was for Ikkansai a matter of mixed emotions, pride in the production of a superlative weapon and the fear of its banning.

              However, word of the "Kihou" spread like wildfire and orders rushed in from all over, including one from Lord Narinobu of the powerful Mito branch of the Tokugawa.

              As the numbers of those interested in the "Kihou" increased, so much so that the volume of personal visits to Ikkansai's home became unreasonable, he realised that he had to write a book which he entitled "Notes on my Air Gun".

              The introduction to the book contains general information about the circumstances which led up to its production along with the production of the Kihou Air Gun and its performance, in the body of the text, the entire Gun is illustrated and named, along with information concerning aspects of its care and operation, how to the pump works and how to use it, how to set up the gun and how to fire it.

              At the end of the preface, it is dated Spring, Bunsei era 2nd year (1819).

              On May 24th of the same year, he was invited to the residence of Lord Sakai Tadayuki (10th Daimyo of the Obama Domain), and in the presence of many important people and their servants he demonstrated the effectiveness of his Air Gun by hitting the target with accuracy, this brought exclamations such as "Kunitomo Guns are the best!" and many other words of praise and adulation.

              The following day, Ikkansai demonstrated his shooting skill at the residence of Matsudaira Noriyasu.(1795 - 1870).

              At the end of the same year, Lord Matsudaira Sadanobu (1759 - 1829) witnessed a demonstration of shooting, and was so impressed that he awarded Ikkansai 7 Silver Mai and requested that he make him one.

              Incidentally, the Fox head design on the hammer mechanism in not original to Ikkansai's design, something similar also occurs on Dutch Air Guns.

              In his book "Kihou - Ki", Ikkansai describes the animal head on the hammer as a Fox, but it really is unknown what type of animal is depicted on the Dutch Air guns.





              The left hand illustration (Top) shows the firing mechanism, the right hand illustration (Bottom) the figure shows how to hold it. (From Edo Science Classics Volume 42 "Notes on my Air Gun").


               

              (From Kunitomo Ikkansai's document illustrating how to operate the firing mechanism)



              (Ink Brush drawing of the overall view from "Kihou - Ki" )

              Here is a translation of the preface to "Kihou" in contemporary language.


              Preface to "Notes on my Air Gun"

              The Dutch word for Air Gun is "Uindoruuru" (Windroer).

              In this peaceful World, we must never forget that peace is a result of caution and preparedness, so says the wisdom of past times.

              Here I will show you all the various devices and techniques in a simple manner.

              When I first heard about the Dutch Airguns, I thought how it might be possible to construct one, and to this end I took some iron and forged a Barrel and then a cylinder that could withsatnd the pressure of the Air, next I tested this small thing which had a lead ball diameter of about 34 Bu (1 centimetre) having prepared a target approximately 9 Shaku (3 metres away), I was able to pierce a wooden panel

              Of course, without using gunpowder, it truly is a strange art.

              However, the system performed reasonably well and splintered the wooden panel with just two shots.

              Three shots however, were hard to achieve.

              Therefore there was no military application for this.

              It was more a children's plaything.

              It was really an unnecessary item.

              I wish to mention the respected Mr Yamada Daien, who has much knowledge of the Dutch sciences, and people, and it was he who encouraged me to view the production of a gun which would both encompass the martial virtues, and be a useful weapon as well.

              Now let me explain how to prepare to rapidly shoot at a wooden target, something which I have accomplished dozens of times in the Dutch system.

              However, there is much to study in depth, of the small skills and methods.

              Now, I can honestly say with some pride, as I am the author of this book.

              Of late, many people who want to ask about my Kihou gun, daily cluster at my gate.

              I no longer have the time to deal with individual inquiries.

              Therefore, I drew this myself, and had copies made, which are now able to be distributed to people from all areas.

              ("Ikkansai Kunitomo Toubei Journals" Page 181 and "Edo Science Classics Series" Volume 42 Page 173.)

              "Kihou - Ki" is an amalgamation of two previous books: "Mikaze Hou Ben Ki" and "Fuu Hou Ben Ki" which were for the general public..

              By this means, the reputation of both Ikkansai and the Kihou Airgun was spread to a wider audience.

              The respected scholar Hirata Atsutane wrote a discourse upon concentration entitled "Polishing a Golden Mirror" which had a great impact upon Ikkansai, and so when he first encountered a gun from a foreign country, that did not work as a firearm, but by the power of Air, he was intrigued, (Ikkansai being) a true man of vision and inventiveness, he concentrated his will and intention, experimenting in many different ways, until at last he created a unique gun.




              In the latter part of the period, in the 6th year of the Bunsei era (1823) Ikkansai wrote a sequel entitled "Illustrated Air Gun".

              Ikkansai caught the attention of the young publisher Saito Gesshin who featured him and Kihou - Ki in his writings, Saito had already published an number of works including Buko Nenpyo and Hyanku Gi Jutsu Ryaku, which featured events and personalities in Edo.

              It seems that at the time, the concept of a gun that fired by the power of Air, without the explosive sound created by Gunpowder was considered bizarre and beyond reasoning.

              The production costs for 1 Kihou Air Gun, in 1820 was 35 Ryo.

              However, at the time, the "Contrina" type Air Gun, which was used for military purposes in Europe, was able to be pumped 2000 times
              using a cast iron pressure - resistant flask, and perform 20 consecutive shots of a 13 mm diameter lead bullet, its initial velocity
              reached 300 metres per second, and the effective range was 80 to 120 metres. (Edo Science and Classics Series Vol. 42 , page 13) .

              "Contrina" is actually referring to the Girandoni Military Air Rifle:

              Although the effective range of the Kihou guns is unknown, when they were manufactured, much more sophisticated (and powerful) Air Guns were being developed in Europe.

              Ikkansai felt the original Dutch air gun was no more that a toy.

              This gun had been manufactured many decades before, and had severely deteriorated.

              There was a statement in Ikkansai's own words that he felt that the isolationism of the era, which caused the lack of up to date information regarding gun design in Europe, was responsible for his comments in Kihou - Ki, based upon the one that he repaired, which labelled European Air Guns as nothing less than mere toys.

              In any case there would have been an unreasonable length of time between volleys due to the large number of pumps required (to charge the pressure vessel).

              Ikkansai questioned how valued Air operated guns as opposed to normal guns were in Western Battles.

              There are also stories, that they (Air Guns) were used for training, and not for fighting.

              By the way, the method of filling the air pressure cylinder with air is really quite time consuming, and requires an empty air canister to be fixed to the top of the pump, which is held upright, and braced with both feet to the base rail, then the gun is pumped up and down 300 to 400 times, which is quite exhausting.

              Ikkansai explains in the usage section of his manual that under 100 pumps was insufficient and that 200 plus brought better results and the possibility of a second shot....
              (From a correspondence between Kunitomo Ikkansai and a mr Yamano which appears on Page 176 of "The World of Science and Technology Study during the Edo period").

                


              (From the illustrations of "Raw Cylinder" (Left - Top) and Animation (Right - Bottom) from "Edo Science Classics Series "Volume 42" - "Kihou -Ki".

               

              Illustration of the air filling method, from "Edo Science Classics Series "Volume 42" - "Kihou -Ki".

              Some people think that his gun was an invention, but it is more reasonable to call it an improvement, not an invention, as Ikkansai said himself in "Kihou - Ki".

              Ikkansai further developed his Air Gun, finally succeeding in producing a quick firing weapon.

              This was accomplished by adding a magazine to the upper part of the barrel and devising a method by which the power could be increased capable of firing 20 shots in rapid succession.

              In a relatively short period of time, it may be fairly said, that, by his dogged determination, he brought the performance of his Air Gun up from that of a Toy to a standard equalling the latest developments in Europe.



              (Illustration of the brackets for the quick firing mechanism, from the documents of Kunitomo Ikkansai)


              In the 4th year of the Bunsei era ( 1821 ) Ikkansai became concerned and made the following statement, as a result of having received many orders from serious marksmen of Samurai status, notably Katai Kyosuke of the Matsudai Han, also gunnery instructors of the Sanuki in present day Kagawa Prefecture and the Shinano of present day Nagano Prefecture.


              "Delivery"

              Please send any orders in writing to Kunitomo Toubei via either of the following respected people: Lord Okubo Kaga No Kami, and Lord of Arita, Harima - Dono, this will then be sent correctly to Kunitomo where work may commence without error and delivery effected upon completion, no other method or ordering shall be used, after that I cannot guarantee delivery. (from "Edo Science Classics Series "Volume 42" - "Commentary Page 14").


              This was a request for guns which would be completed the following year.

              Ikkansai had been informed of an impending ban in less that three years after the completion of the first gun in march of 1819.

              It is not known if this was a short or limited ban.

              It is certainly known that Ikkansai had made Air Guns in 1824 and also, there are record books in existence showing orders from the last years of the Bunsei era into the new Tenpo era, (1830/31) so the ban, if any, could have only been a short lived affair.

              There is also a record from 1826, which documents the delivery of a rapid firing Kihou Air Gun to Marquis Maeda of the Kaga domain.

              However, at the end of the Edo period, with the rising cost of guns and the influx of modern weapons from the West, Air Guns were out of fashion and relegated to no more than objects of interior design for the rambling houses of the newly rich.

              Sadly, in the emerging modern Japan, domestically produced Air Guns were relegated to the status of historical curios, and never realised any further development in a practical sense.

              Today, examples of Ikkansai's Air Gun are preserved at, Tokyo National Museum,(Ueno) The National Museum for History and Folklore, (Sawara) The Matsuura Museum of Historical Materials, (Hirado) and the "Kunitomo Genuemon Family House" in Kunitomo itself.

              Standardisation of Gun production methods

              In the early years of the Bunka era, around 1804, the great peace of the Tokugawa period was disturbed by concerns over the threat of military incursion by foreign countries.

              Around that time, there were many reports of looting caused by foreign ships invading the waters around Japan, from Karafuto, north of Hokkaido to Nagasaki in the south.

              During 1806 and 1807, the Shogunate refused a trade treaty with Russia, which led to conflict north of Hokkaido in Karafuto and the islands beyond, in October of the following year (1808), the British frigate, HMS Phaeton forced its way into Nagasaki harbour masquerading as a Dutch vessel, they captured the Dutch representatives and demanded Firewood, Water and Food, under threat of the destruction of Japanese and Chinese vessels in the harbour.

              Regarding the incident with the Frigate Phaeton, no less a person than acting Magistrate for Nagasaki, Matsudaira Yasuhide, was powerless against the intimidation inflicted by the Phaeton, due to the fact that the long years of the great peace had reduced the number of the troops available from the Nabeshima Clan; he had no ability to respond tactically and was forced to accede to their demands.

              It was a disastrous ending, and both Matsudaira Yasuhide, and a few elders of the Nabeshima Clan, took full responsibility, and committed ritual suicide.

              From the time of Yasunaga (1771 onward) concerns had been voiced regarding Japan's vulnerability to attack, based upon information supplied by the Dutch traders, who told of the dangers from the Russians in the North and the Westerners in the South, the noted Rangaku scholar and activist Hayashi Shihei (1738 - 1793) wrote a 16 volume treatise on Coastal defence entitled "Military Defence for a Maritime Nation"

              Although Matsudaira Sadanobu, Lord of the Shirakawa Clan, had put Hayashi Shihei under House Arrest, he was deeply interested in the concepts of coastal defence and in the years spanning 1810 - 1811 instituted a building program to create coastal defence Batteries in the Izu / Sagami region of Edo Bay, over which, he had control.

              Later, Sadanobu had to put a stop to the old man's plans and retire, however with the increasing number of incursions including the Phaeton Incident, the clamour for coastal defences became stronger, and the original maritime defence plans were restarted with the Shirakawa Han and both sides of the Aizu Han given responsibility for the defence of Edo Bay.

              When Ikkansai went to Edo, as a result of the Hikone incident, the streets were resounding with the public fervour for urgent Maritime defence.

              Whilst Ikkansai was residing in Edo, he had an audience with Matsudaira Sadanobu.

              Sadanobu's strong belief was that the production of heavy guns was the only strategic solution to overcome the foreign threat, and to this end asked Ikkansai to develop a standardised method for mass production.

              On December 6th 1818, the first year of the Bunsei era, Sadanobu dispatched his servant Shuto Kinpachi, a man of great knowledge in Artillery matters, to ride to meet with Ikkansai and ask several questions.

              According to a letter sent by Ikkansai to Kunitomo Jirosuke on the 15th of January 1819, the details were as follows:



              On the 6th of December (1818), a letter from the recently retired Lord Matsudaira Sadanobu Etchu no Kami, signed "Raku - O" (His pen name), was delivered to me by his trusted servant and adviser, Shutou Kinpachi.

              It, (the letter), introduced the bearer as an accomplished student of the Nakajima Ryu, School of Gunnery and suggested that Ikkansai visit areas of the the Boshu Province, which was at the tip of the Boso peninsular in present day Chiba Ken, here, various sites had been designated for development as " O - Daiba" - Coastal Gun emplacements, this was with the sanction of the Shogunal Court's department for gunnery.

              Lord Raku -O's letter of December 6th detailed much of the great plans , but Lord Raku - O still had many questions.

              Fortunately, visiting Kunitomo Toubei will offer the perfect opportunity to ask many questions

              I apologise for the intrusion, I, Lord Raku - O, have dispatched my trusted servant Kinpachi by swift horse to you, please receive, and hear what he has to impart. and consider well an answer to my questions, which are many.

              To that effect, it is likely to be necessary that my trusted servant Kinpachi meet with you for a number of days, please offer him courtesy, in my name, Lord Raku - O.

              Please accept my apologies if the task is so great, however, I am in earnest that the cause is right and by diligent devotion we can achieve a document that will be of use.

              However, it must be said that there are currently few gunsmiths or workers in metal, who can produce consistent results from one item to another, much it would seem is judged by eye, and not accurately at that, there must be a standardisation from the smallest ball upwards.

              I am concerned that there is a correct manual by which everyone be made aware of how to form a strong barrel accurately, that the sizes are consistent, even if it is of large proportion, there should be a standard by which an official person might decide its worth.

              Let us strip away the old practices, all of it which is holding back the arts of Gunnery .

              I leave the matter to your choosing, make whatever changes you see fit, but use your ingenuity and create new methods.

              I hereby confirm that I shall reward you for your services, I am in your debt, and I shall pay you in advance, I apologise, that I am unavailable on the 8th day, so, in ten days we shall meet at the Tsukiji Palace,

              On the 10th day we can meet and you will show me what you have written, I shall be available from 4 until 10 pm.

              A house in the lower side of the property has been prepared for you, in which to examine various documents etc, and the bearer of this letter will accompany you, to ensure that your requirements are met with.

              I, Raku O Sama, have made provision at this place for you to work and be inventive, also provision has been made for the preparation of delicious food that you may partake of and furthermore if on the 12th my servant, the respected Shotou Kinpachi could accompany you to the yearly meeting at Court, where the matters appertaining to guns may be discussed.

              He is a man of much experience and knowledge upon the subject of gunnery, and is versed in the ways of the Court, he is much admired for his manner and has thoroughly mastered various arts, let us hope he will be of service.

              I, Raiko - O Sama, request of you, to write in your own hand upon such matters as shall be required, so that it may be spread and found in many places that shall be approved.

              Thank you very much for your agreement to meet, I have arranged for Mr Shutou to supply you with signed documents which bear my seal, and seven large ingots of Silver, together with some Hundred Gold pieces, that you shall surpass the work of generations past, and thus overcome the foreign aspirations which currently beset us.

              ("Journal of Ikkansai Kunitomo Toubei" Page 205 onwards.)

              Thus it was that in just 4 days a book entitled "Production of Large & Small Guns" was completed and presented to Lord Sadanobu, ready for the printers.

              The Book includes the complete length and weight, bore diameter, range distance, dimensions and weight of each part, Wrought Iron / Welding methods, estimates of Iron and Charcoal materials, and the number of people required to make various types of Gun. The details are clearly shown, and the making method from 1 Monme to 10 Kan is described.

              In general terms, it is as follows.

              Important Point: The method of making guns has not been constant since ancient times, and the method of making them is different, depending upon each person, so there are differences in costs and materials, and consequently differences in the quality of finished product which may cause inconvenience in protecting the coast. There have been many attempts to unify production methods over the years.

              Important Point: The common method of the time was to start with bars of Shingane (What the swordsmiths call Core Steel) of 1 Shaku 2 Sun length ( works out as - 1 &amp; 2/10th Shaku = 1 Shaku = 11.93 inches 2 Sun = 2 x 1.193 inches; total 13.123 inches), with a uniform thickness between 8 &amp; 9 Bu ( This means 8 to 9 Bu thick = 9 x 0,1193 inches Total 1.074 inches approximately), of this, it is important that the barrel is consistent throughout, after many years of experiment, it is now possible to manufacture Cannon capable of firing a 10 Kan ball (82.6 pounds / 37.5 Kilograms)

              Important Point: In respect of Coastal Defences, if a Government Official is in charge of the Book, then a common Blacksmith with no previous training in making guns can freely produce both large and small guns.


              (From Kunitomo Ikkansai's Book "Production of Large & Small Guns" )

              In other words, this book standardises the performance and production costs of guns, enables mass production by Industrial mobilisation, and can make the production of guns a matter of modern Industrial technology. At the time of its publication, it was ground breaking, as industrialisation on this scale had not been envisaged, and by tradition the techniques were always kept as highly secret.

              There are instances in the book, which indicate that Ikkansai felt the need for guns capable of coastal defence, long before he encountered Matsudaira Sadanobu.

              This is further evidenced in Ikkansai's notes, by an illustration of a submersible vessel capable of attacking foreign ships from the sea itself.

              Also, many were concerned regarding the disclosure of both a standardisation and industrialisation of gun making, It turns out that he was well prepared for the revealing of the secrets.

              Low costs, high quality and preparation for disclosure.

              In fact, his ethos was "There are no secrets in gun making", he freely gave of his knowledge to his many apprentices, and encouraged them as independent craftsmen, capable of making anything, including his Air Gun.

              To emphasise this, the speed with which he produced the single book for Sadanobu, was a clear result of his much practised lessons given to his many apprentices.

              Even though he was born in the the humble village of Kunitomo, he achieved National recognition and mastered the gunnery schools of Ogino Ryu,Tanegashima Ryu, Nanban Ryu, Hoshiyama Ryu, and Yoneyama Ryu; and also succeeded in the development of his Air Gun.

              It could be said without fear of correction, that Ikkansai's "Production of Large & Small Guns" was the only general purpose book detailing domestic gun production available at the time.

              It must be said, that the book was written in such simple and direct terms, that we are able to understand today, how such complex things as "Aramaki" double rolled barrels were actually made.

              However, despite the advances in standardisation of all types of gun, it was backward in comparison to Western gun technology.

              The development of guns in the West had been rapid, from flintlock ignition which no longer needed a match cord, to the rifling of barrels and breech loading, culminating in the invention of a detonator using fulminate of mercury had already been made.

              Matchlock guns had fatal disadvantages in the respect that they did not perform well, or even at all in both wet and windy conditions, and thus could not perform a trustworthy part in the planning of battles, by the early 1800's, the standards of mechanisation and reliability that was accepted as the norm in both the West and the United States surpassed anything that the Japanese could offer, with such innovations and improvements to barrel and stocks involving, levers, cocking actions and the like, all of which could be precisely and rapidly produced in high volume, using high speed lathes, crimping, boring and cutting machines.

              From the Western perspective, even though Ikkansai was a genius "out of the box" engineer, the limitations imposed upon him by Japan's exclusion policy weighed heavily upon his creativity.

              The influx of high quality Western firearms during the Bakumatsu and Restoration period overwhelmed domestic production completely.

              Even though the book was produced, there is no record of any mass production of guns or cannon resulting from it.

              As was seen in the ban on the production of the Air Gun, was this just too much for the Shogunate to accept?

              It may have been determined by the Shogunate, that it was just too dangerous to allow a book, which showed relatively unskilled artisans how to easily produce firearms, as this could lead to internal unrest, given the uncertainty of the times.

              The fact that there are so few of the original printing of the book left, may infer, that it was deliberately printed in a small number to avoid action by the Shogunate.

              In those days, the authorities could not keep up with either Ikkansai's advanced ideas, or his ability to produce objects from them.

              The failure of the project was cryptically summed up later, by the philosopher and right wing activist, Hirata Atsutane, that, "There was no pleasure in riding a horse that had already ridden through a thousand Villages" ; meaning that it was difficult to find a person of ability within the Shogunate, who could see the potential for the idea.....

              One of Ikkansai's regrets about his Gun book, was that it seems that it was intentionally buried, by both the Maeda household, and the Kaga Domain, at the insistence of Matsudaira Sadanobu himself.

              Currently, the original copy of the book is designated as an important cultural property by the City of Nagahama.

              Pip Pip Cheerio

              Malcolm

              Comment


              • #8
                Article 7:

                Here follows the full page translation:

                The web pages are available here:

                http://www7b.biglobe.ne.jp/~kunitomo...ta/syuuen.html

                This translation of the page displayed on the internet is for educational use only.

                Copyright is retained by:

                Copyright (C) 2010-2019. Kimagure - Suiryuu, All Rights Reserved.


                "Tying up Loose Ends"

                Ikkansai's son Kichijuuro, had been ill and bedridden for a long time, and, he prayed that if Kichijuuro could be returned to good health again, he would sacrifice his own body in his stead.

                Ikkansai wrote "I have been praying to the Gods and Buddha that I shall be healed soon"; but on the 3rd of December 1840, after having visited both the Hiyoshi Shrine and Inoji Temple which were in his neighbourhood, he was at home, praying in front of the Butsudan Altar; he uttered the name of "Azumi "(no Isora no Kami), collapsed and passed away.

                He was 63 years old, and was given the posthumous Buddhist name of: "Ikkansai Shaku Tadashi Isao Koji".


                He was buried at the Buddhist Temple Injoji and in later years a fifth name was added (to his Kaimyou?).

                About ten years after his death, the political situation had changed dramatically, and the arrival of Perry forced a reappraisal of the firearm technology required for effective national defence.

                With the sheer volume of Western technology flooding in, and research into Western style guns taking place in many other places, Kunitomo guns simply could not adapt into the new era.

                It seems that Kunitomo Gunsmiths were part of the retinue of the Punitive Shogunal Force sent down to the Choshu domain, and later, in the new era, were part of the evolving Meiji Army, thus many skilled men left Kunitomo for steady work in Tokyo, etc, and so, Kunitomo as a gun making village, gradually headed for an inevitable extinction.

                In the Meiji era, Kunitomo Tohei (1851 - 1920), Kunitomo Toubei's grandson, became 11th elder of the family, and Ikkansai's tradition came to an end in the early Showa era (1926 1989) when Kunitomo Satoru Jiro retired as the last Blacksmith.

                In the long history of gun making, which lasted almost three hundred years, Ikkansai was surely the shining beacon, by which all others were judged.




                Kunitomo Satoru Jirou with his own gun. "From Page 408 - The biography of Ikkansai Kunitomo Toubei".

                Although there is still a sense of the Forge and all the craftsmen would laboured here in the past, now visitors experience a quiet atmosphere at the gate, in front of which a stone pillar states, Kunitomo Ikkansai's residence.

                Also at this moment, there is a huge rock outside the Kunitomo Village Hall which proudly Commemorates that this is the Village made famous by the Kunitomo Ikkansai.
                The famous Journalist Tokutomi Soho provided the sentiments of the message and the noted calligrapher Arima Seiho wrote it (Which was then carved by a stone cutter).

                The inscription states "This stone is set here to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the passing of Kunitomo Ikkansai, a man of highest respect. set here upon this, the 2600th year of the foundation of Imperial line (1940).

                It was erected here in December 1965.

                Kunitomo Ikkansai continues to be revered in the community, and every year, on December 3rd, the anniversary of his death, there is a festival in his honour.

                Unfortunately, it is said, that the original stone which marked Ikkansai's resting place was lost long ago.



                (Kunitomo Ikkansai's former home, photographed on the 3rd of July 2010)

                So far, I have written much about Kunitomo Ikkansai and Kunitomo Village, spicing the story with anecdotes concerning episodes in his life, inventions, astronomical observations and struggles, and thus, I conclude this paper.

                (I will however, from time to time, add incidents and episodes.)


                Incidents and Episodes...

                〈Drunk in front of Lord Maeda of Kaga〉

                Lord Maeda, Daimyo of the Kaga Han had heard that Ikkansai had a fondness for alcohol, and so when he met with him, he made sure that there was a large supply of Sake available, ikkansai said "If you pour it, then I shall drink it!" , it is said that Lord Maeda counselled Ikkansai that he might make himself upset, if he drank too freely.

                "Don't be concerned", said Ikkansai, and promptly drank it all at once.

                Soon after, he became extremely drunk and promptly fell asleep, snoring loudly.

                Lord Maeda exclaimed "How childlike, mind you don't catch cold." and took off his own warm Haori and Hakama and put them on Ikkansai himself.

                It is an anecdote unique to Ikkansai, given the strict social structure of the era, it was almost unheard of for one of noble rank to associate so familiarly with one the rank of a humble craftsman.

                Haori and Hakama were, at the time, strict symbols of Samurai status, and thus, later, became heirlooms of the Kunitomo Family.

                It would be interesting to speculate if his nickname "Sleeping Dragon" was as a result of him falling asleep in bars, but then this is only my fanciful opinion.

                〈Lord Maeda of Kaga's unexpected visit to Ikkansai's home〉

                Once, Lord Maeda unexpectedly broke his journey to Edo, in order to visit Kunitomo Village, and see exactly how guns were made at the Kunitomo Gun works.

                Given the era, it was unheard of for Daimyo to make such a visit to a humble craftsman's village, and thus it caused a great deal of fuss, with the inhabitants furiously cleaning and polishing, literally everything in the village.

                And so, the magnificent procession crossed the Anegawa River and entered Kunitomo Village, stopping outside Ikkansai's house where Lord Maeda began his visit.

                From the back of a room, they brought many items, and the party was able to see the processes involved in gun making, whilst receiving instruction, later mementos from this room were preserved to commemorate the visit.

                According to "The journal of Ikkansai Kunitomo Toubei" the items were preserved , and certainly that was so, until the early years of the Showa era, when they were dispersed, as having decayed too much.

                〈Ikkansai's Portrait in Edo School Style〉

                Within the Kunitomo Family, it was passed down from a long time ago, that the portrait of a handsome young man, was painted in Edo School Style, and was known in Yamagata, Gifu Prefecture as "the Dreamer", but there is no other known image of Kunitomo Ikkansai in existence.


                The Edo School style is closely linked to the wood block printed pictures of Actors known as Ukiyo - E, indeed the young man depicted bears all the characteristics of an actor of the period.

                I was invited to participate in an event by the Kunitomo family and I saw photographs of the 10th generation son of Ikkansai Kunitomo Toubei's line (Mitsuru Hajime (female name ?) who died in 1888) and his eldest son Touhei (Nou Kyou who died in 1918), the Photographs were in frames and decorated.

                The photograph of the 10th generation was unclear, however the one of Touhei had a clean cut modern look and did not look like it came from the late Edo period, I am not sure, It may not be just be a legend.

                It makes me wonder if the genetic imprint shows Ikkansai's features in later generations?

                〈Meiji period Kunitomo Blacksmith made Bicycles 〉

                On the 15th of September 1988, Sankei Shinbun (a daily newspaper) published an article entitled "Kunitomo Gunsmiths made Bicycles".

                According to the article, a hand made bicycle, copied from a popular pattern of the time, known as "Daruma Bicycle" (Like a "Penny Farthing"), was found in Shizuoka Prefecture, in the house of a man who had been a former gunsmith during the early Meiji era.

                As a result of this article, it turned out that not only were Kunitomo Gunsmiths making Bicycles, but also Gunsmiths from Sakai.

                There was is inscription on the frame stating that it was made at the beginning of April 1891, and signed that Kunitomo made it, which is considered as strong evidence that the first Japanese to make a Bicycle, was a Gunsmith.

                Although this was a long time after Ikkansai's day, it is as if a lingering scent of the spirit that produced his genius remains.

                However, It is not clear, whether, or not, it was actually made in Kunitomo Village.

                The front wheel has a diameter of 105 cms, the rear wheel has a diameter of 48 cms and it stands 115 cms to the saddle, the wheels are made of wood with iron banded tyres.

                It is owned by the Tokyo Metropolitan "Edo Tokyo Museum".

                〈Television Commercial featuring "Kunitomo Ikkansai"〉

                In the past, there was a Television Commercial featuring Ikkansai on IBM's Television Channel.

                " Once, there was a man who was obsessed by the Sun".

                The commercial, which lasted 60 seconds, began with an atmospheric narration " Here in ancient Omi province, a Gunsmith by the name of Kunitomo Ikkansai Toubei is studying the Sun and making a daily record", then an animation of Sunspots appearing on the surface of the Sun as it revolves was presented.

                When I contacted IBM television, they told me that the Commercial, which began broadcasting in March of 1979, was not to sell a specific product, but to publicise a corporate Public Relations company, and using the analogy of Ikkansai's dogged determination in the pursuit of his ground breaking studies on Sunspot activity, was felt to be beneficial in explaining the company's ethos.

                I recall seeing this commercial several times when I was a child, and it made such in impression upon me, particularly the beautiful flow of the frame by frame animation of the Sunspots and the name of Kunitomo Ikkansai.

                Had I not seen this commercial, then it is likely that today, I would be unaware of Ikkansai.

                〈Asteroid Kunitomo Ikkansai〉

                On the 9th of November 1991, Mr Sugie Atsushi, an Astronomer working at the Dynic Astropark in Tagamachi Town, Inagumi County, Shiga Prefecture, identified a new asteroid in the main belt between Mars and Jupiter.
                 
                In April 1994, it was first given the serial number "VK4 1991" by the Asteroid Centre in Cambridge U.S.A., however, in December 1998, following a campaign led by senior Astronomer Murayama Masao of the National Science Museum in Ueno, Tokyo, it was named "6100 Kunitomo Ikkansai" after the great man himself.

                It is numbered in the World register as the 6,100th Asteroid to be identified and catalogued.

                It's orbit period is 3.55 years and it's diameter is estimated between 4.5 - 7.5 Kilometers.

                How unimaginable could it have been to Ikkansai, even with his wisdom, that one day in the future, a Star would bear his name.


                〈What does his last word "Azumi" mean? 〉

                As I wrote earlier in this paper, Ikkansai is said to have uttered the word "Azumi" and died in front of the Altar in his Home.

                This is the story written in the Biography of Ikkansai Kunitomo Toubei, but how does one interpret it?

                Some other books also quote "Azumi" - 阿曇, but this may be a typo on the original source, and actually, his last word was "A-Un" - 阿雲.

                Although, in both Chinese and Japanese dictionaries, the Character 曇 (Kumori) is read as "Cloud", and may also be read when in combination with another character as "Tan" or "Don", it seems odd to read it in combination as "Aton" or "Adon".

                I think that it is more to do with the invocation "A - Un", related to Mikkyo (Esoteric Buddhism), being the expression of the beginning and the ending of all things and has nothing to do with Clouds.

                With the present sources, there is no way of confirming, which reading is correct, so for the moment I must use a question mark.


                〈Nagahama "Hometown" Cards〉

                Nagahama City Council commissioned a card series entitled: "Nagahama Hometown Cards".

                In 1985, the concept of the card series which would be distributed free amongst the elementary schools, was first put to the general public for their vote upon what should be included to showcase the history of Nagahama, and 44 subjects were chosen to be used.

                Such things as Toyotomi Hideyoshi's development of the town of Imahama, the scenic beauty of Lake Biwa, and an image of Ikkansai featured against a backdrop of one of his Sunspot drawings.

                At the Kunitomo Village Gun Museum, we have created a Karuta collectors' card series devoted to Ikkansai, and this is highly treasured by the avid collectors of Karuta cards, who meet every year, in the spring, for a Convention.

                One can feel the strength of emotion and pride that many of the locals have for Ikkansai.


                〈The Telescope as an Important Cultural Property〉

                A reflector Telescope, made by Ikkansai, which is part of the permanent collection of Ueda City Museum in Nagano Prefecture, was designated as an Important National Cultural Property, following a report commissioned by the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in 2012.

                This is one of the four Telescopes known to have been made by Ikkansai, and was donated by a family in Ueda City, who inherited it from their ancestors who were part of the old Suwa Clan.

                It is dated to the 5th year of the Tenpo era - 1834, and is the oldest of all four telescopes.

                This is an Important National Cultural Property because of its undisputed provenance, quality of construction and state of preservation and the fact that it was the first one ever made in Japan.

                It is a tangible object by which the genius of Ikkansai can be confirmed.


                〈Novel: "Desiring the Moon"〉

                It was announced in July of 2012, by the publishers, Kodansha, that Mr Nishi Koichiro's novel, "Desiring the Moon", which features Ikkansai as main character, had won the 7th Kodansha "Best Newcomer Award", the company published the book on November 8th of the same year.


                The book is filled with rich descriptions of the era, based upon the author's in depth research, bringing to life a heartfelt story of the life and times of Ikkansai, and Kunitomo Village, set against a backdrop of intrigue, social upheaval and one man's stoic determination to succeed.

                This major work, which was the culmination of 13 long and hard years in obscurity, confirms the debut of Mr Nisho Koichiro as a novelist.

                This is the first time a novel based on Ikkansai has won a major prize.

                Shortly after, in the same year, he also won the Asahi Novel award, a double success, blooming after so long in the shade.


                〈Novel: "Making Dreams Come True"〉

                In July 2012, Mr Yamamoto Kenichi, Naoki literary Prize winner, previously known for his historical novels such as "Castle under Fiery Skies" and "Ask this of Rikyu", had his Novel "Makin Dreams Come True" serialised in 13 local newspapers including, Niigata Daily Record, Kyoto Shinbun, & Nagasaki Shinbun etc.

                Mr Yamamoto, who specialised in describing the close observation of craftsmen and their crafts, has described Ikkansai as a learned man of positive attitude, overcoming life's challenges and hardships, the 341 page book was completed in June of the following year.

                He based his story upon close examination of the Family Documents of Kunitomo Ikkansai, coupled with many visits to the Kunitomo area, where he undertook in depth detailed investigations.

                Curiously, Mr Nishi Kouichiro's novel "Desiring the Moon" came out at the same time, but the aspect of Ikkansai that he portrayed was totally different.

                Mr Yamamoto wrote the final draft whilst fighting against lung cancer, sadly he did not survive to see it completed, and passed away on the 13th of February 2014.

                He was 57years old.

                On the 15th of February 2015, the monthly magazine publisher Bungei Shunju published the novel as a complete book.

                〈 Kunitomo area Museum of Gunnery celebrates 300,000 visitors 〉

                On the 23rd of September 2015, (Wednesday) the 300,000th visitor attended the Kunitomo area Museum of Gunnery.

                The building was constructed in Showa 62,1987, by Nagahama City and Kunitomo area councils, and opened on the 1st of October in the same year, this was as a result of an initiative begun in the 1950's to revitalise both the town, and reassess the role of Kunitomo Guns, following increased interest by the local population.

                Mr Kazuno Hoshino a resident of Otsu City was the 300,000th visitor, on the 23rd of September 2015, a celebration complete with certificates and bouquets was organised to commemorate the 28th anniversary with many local dignitaries, Officials, Newspaper representatives and others represented.

                〈 "Science in The Edo Period" Exhibition (1932)〉

                Following the first major exhibition of Edo and Meiji period scientific instruments at Tokyo's National Science Museum in November 1932, the author Mikami Yoshio (1875 - 1950) published a concise review of early Japanese scientific instruments in June of 1933.

                At the exhibition, a reflective telescope made by Kunitomo Toubei, during the Tenpo era (1831 - 1845), was displayed.

                There is a description of that.

                The Tokyo Science Museum, situated in the Ueno area of the Taito ward of Tokyo, is the current National Museum of Science.

                This replaced the former building in Yushima, which was damaged in the Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923, the new building in Ueno was opened in November 1931.

                The exhibition "Science of the Edo Period" took place from November 2nd (1931) to (November ?) 13th the following Year, it is said that Ikkansai's telescope was exhibited there.

                It was also in 1931, that Arima Seiho and others released the result of their research into Ikkansai, utilising both his documents and also possibly items borrowed from the Kunitomo family.


                〈Flooding by the Anegawa in the vicinity of Kunitomo district〉

                The ancient battleground of Anegawa was flooded during the approach of Typhoon No 5 which lasted from Monday August 7th 2017 to the following day.

                The National Weather Agency announced, the highest volume of rainfall recorded in a short period for Shiga Prefecture, on the night of the 7th.

                The Prefectural water gauge for Kunitomo district, which was fitted at the Kunitomo Bridge which crossed the Anegawa, indicated a rise of 90cms at 9.00PM on the evening of the 7th, and shot up to 2.5 mtrs by 1.00AM on the 8th, well over the danger limit.

                At 1.03 am. Nagahama City issued an order of evacuation preparation to 417 households, totalling 1267 persons, this included the areas of Kunitomo district, Oimachi and Shimonogo district, later the area was extended.


                It appears that a volume of muddy water overflowed a waterway near the former Oi bridge, downstream from Kunitomo district, flooding fields and residential areas.

                Although there was some damage to lower lying areas in the area of flooding, there was no personal damage, and evacuation preparations were cancelled by midday on the 8th.

                In Nagahama City, a record breaking 247.5 mm of rain fell in the 24 hours until 9 am.

                According to local elderly people, it was "The worst flood in living memory".

                〈A new document discovered about the Anegawa earthquake〉

                A new historic document on the Anegawa Earthquake, which occurred at 15:31 on the 14th of August 1909 (Meiji 42) and caused considerable damage to Nagahama City and surrounds, has been discovered in an old house in Kunitomo.

                A record of the earthquake, entitled "Earthquake Disaster Journal" was found in a book written by Ikkansai's Grandson, Kunitomo Touhei, who was mayor of Kamiteru Village and 11th generation head of the Family.

                It was published in June 2018, in the journal of the local community history research group.

                The Anegawa earthquake was situated inland, in the upper Anegawa area, with a magnitude of 6.7, with a maximum seismic intensity of 6 recorded in Nagahama City.

                In Shiga Prefecture, 35 people were killed and 115 seriously injured, 972 homes were completely destroyed and 2,367 partially destroyed.

                It is believed that activity along the Yanagase fault line, which extends from Shiga to Fukui Prefecture, was the cause.

                The "Earthquake Disaster Journal" recounts, that the earthquake activity lasted about 5 minutes, and in that time many areas suffered damage ranging from complete collapse of houses, disruption of facilities, including pollution of natural well water supplies to the collapse of stone lanterns and internal household structural damage, with many aftershocks throughout the course of the day.

                Such records, compiled by the general public are rare, so much so that the Nagahama Castle Museum of History regards it as an important document, inasmuch as it is a "Catalogue of the disaster from the perspective of the victims".

                In Kunitomo, the lessons learned from this document, together with other source material, will be used to instruct local people to be prepared for future disasters.

                〈Nagahama launches an Ikkansai Re - evaluation Committee〉

                The committee for the re - evaluation of Kunitomo Ikkansai was established in Nagahama City in 2018, marking the 240th anniversary of Ikkansai's birth, and the first committee meeting took place on the 23rd of October.

                It is said that the family of the late mr Kunitomo Takao, a resident of Kunitomo, and a researcher into Kunitomo Ikkansai, donated 1 Million Yen to the City for the institution of an Award.

                Among the members of the committee are individuals from, the National Museum of Science (Tsukuba City, Ibaraki Prefecture), Nagahama City board of Education, members of the local community association, and researchers into Astro - Physics.

                The committee's intention is to raise the national awareness of Ikkansai, who has not fared so well as other historical figures, such as the inventor Hiraga Gennai (1728 - 1780) and the cartographer, Inou Tadataka (1745 - 1818), due to the fact that the only students who carried on his work, were gunsmiths.

                As a part of that, in December, a Stage adaptation of Yamamoto Kenichi's novel "Making Dreams Come True" was performed in the City, by a local Theatre group.

                In the future, it is also planned to make a Film adaptation of his novel.

                It has also been suggested a special "Ikkansai awareness class", be set up in the City's elementary and Junior High Schools, to promote the education of local children.




                ( "Ayame" (Iris) from Kunitomo Ikkansai's Journal )


                As described above, I wrote this essay upon the character of Kunitomo Toubei Ikkansai by myself, and I am thankful for its reception

                At the time of writing, it is 170 years since the death of Ikkansai.

                From the dramatic changes which occurred after the Meiji Restoration to the remarkable Post War reconstruction, the scientific field in Japan has progressed accordingly, culminating soon in the "Hayabusa" Space probe, which firmly sets Japan's leading place as part of the World Scientific community.



                As one of the forerunners in this field of scientific development, Japanese science and technology is becoming better known worldwide.

                It is my opinion that, in the past, figures such as Hiraga Gen'Nai and others, have eclipsed Ikkansai's achievements, due to their popular fame, it is my earnest wish that this paper will, in some way, redress the situation.

                The major biography of Ikkansai, by the writer Arima Seiho, entitled "Journal of Ikkansai Kunitomo Toubei" is rich with historical detail but unfortunately full of typographical errors, nonetheless, I would urge you to obtain a copy and take a look.

                武藏野書院, Tōkyō : Musashino Shoin, Shōwa 7 - 1932



                By the way, it is said that the title on the spine of the book, is transcribed from Ikkansai's own handwriting, and that the seals above and below, are the actual seals that Ikkansai used regularly.

                   

                ( The front cover and spine of "The Journal of Ikkansai Kunitomo Toubei".

                In addition, the Nagahama Castle Museum of History in Shiga Prefecture, has published a new book, "Science and Technology in the Edo period - the World that spreads from Kunitomo Ikkansai", which contains new and interesting information, complete with many contemporary photographs.

                This book is much more specialised than this article, and is cross referenced for verification, it is a very good book, in fact I would say it is a "Must Read" Book.

                In writing this article, I have referred to various things.

                In addition, the details of his Astronomical Observations using his Telescope are as detailed as Volume 4 of the National Astronomical Review Report (1998) by Dr Tomita Yoshio, and others concerning the depth of detail contained within Ikkansai's Studies, and I think it has aided modern Astronomers from their studies of Ikkansai's observations, for which they owe him a great debt.

                When publishing this article, we were able to use illustrations from both the Kunitomo Ikkansai Journals and the Kunitomo Family collection.

                Also when you have the book, you will see corrections and additions to the text, the famous Edo - E picture entitled "Ikkansai" is, so called, based on notes left by him.



                Thank you from the bottom of my heart.



                Signed:

                Kimagure "Sleeping Dragon"

                3rd of October 2010
                Pip Pip Cheerio

                Malcolm

                Comment


                • #9
                  Now onto the chronology:

                  http://www7b.biglobe.ne.jp/~kunitomo...a/nenpyou.html

                  Again thanks to our friend Kimagure "Sleeping Dragon" who painstakingly collated all the information.

                  This translation of the page displayed on the internet is for educational use only.

                  Copyright is retained by:

                  Copyright (C) 2010-2019. Kimagure - Suiryuu, All Rights Reserved.


                  Kunitomo Ikkansai - Chronology and Main Reference Sources

                  (Supplementary Note: Biography of Arima Seiho)

                  Born in October in the 7th year of the An'Ei era (1778), his birth name was Shigeyasu and he was given the Family name of Touichi, later he was known as Ikkansai and nicknamed "Sleeping Dragon". (Other sources state November 21st as his birthdate).

                  In the 9th year of the An'Ei era (1780), a brother known first as Oka Saburo (Later Genjuurou) is born.

                  In the 3rd year of the Tenmei era (1783), a sister is born.

                  In the 6th year of the Tenmei era (1786), upon his Father's retirement, he is renamed Toubei.

                  In the 7th year of the Tenmei era (1787), the "Tenmei Famine" ends.

                  In the 6th year of the Kansei era (1794), as Kunitomo Toubei, he inherits the title and status of Toshiyori Elder, and is declared 9th Generation head of the Kunitomo Family.

                  In October of the 9th year of the Kansei era (1797), the main house was burned down as a result of sparks coming from fires used by the workers in the Vinegar shop of Chuubee, but the building was rebuilt the following year.

                  In the 11th year of the Kansei era (1799), observances after the death of Ikkansai's father are over, and he takes on his first apprentice, Honma Heishichi, but there is some friction involving the scolding of Ikkansai's sister.

                  It was in the 8th year of the Bunka era (1811), that the Hikone Han personally commissioned Ikkansai, to produce a large scale gun of 200 monme calibre. This action caused the rival Toshiyori elders of Kunitomo Village to become dissatisfied and they subsequently complained to the Hikone Han.

                  In the 10th year of the Bunka era (1813), he marries. The disgruntled Toshiyori elders appeal to the Shogunate in respect of their issues with the Hikone Han (Hikone Incident).

                  In the 11th year of the Bunka era (1814), the first daughter is born. His friend, the Ophthalmologist Yamada Daien shows him illustrations of a Dutch air gun, and he makes a model based upon of them.

                  In the 13th year of the Bunka era (1816), Ikkansai's eldest son Kichijurou is born. In the fifth month, he received orders from the local magistrates to travel to Edo, to testify as a witness in respect of the "Hikone Incident". From this time, his friendship with Hirata Atsutane begins.

                  In the 14th year of the Bunka era (1817), The Hikone Incident is over, the heads of the four Toshiyori Families who brought the case are punished, and Ikkansai becomes overall Headman of Kunitomo Village, appointed by the Shogunate.

                  In the 10th month (October), of the 1st year of the Bunsei era (1818), he saw an actual Dutch Airgun for the first time, this was at the residence of Yamada Daien in Edo, it was not in working order, so he repaired it. In the 11th Month (November), he began work on his own version of an Airgun. At the specific request of Lord Matsudaira Sadanobu, he undertook to write "Manufacture of large and small guns". He also made a distance measurement device, based upon his examination of a Dutch Octant.

                  The first truly original air gun was completed by the 3rd month (March) of the 2nd year of the Bunsei era (1819), he called it an "air gun", later he wrote a manual entitled "Air Gun Record" which was aimed at the general public and explained not only how the guns were made, and also how to use them.

                  In the 10th month (October) of the 3rd year of the Bunsei era (1820), Ikkansai became a disciple of Hirata Atsutane. In the 11th month (November), he was banned from making his Air guns. In the same year, he saw a Dutch reflector telescope for the first time, at the house of Naruse Hayato.

                  In the 4th year of the Bunsei era (1821), he leaves Edo to return to Kunitomo Village.

                  In the 7th year of the Bunsei era (1824), he produces a sacred "magic" mirror.

                  NOTE FROM ME:
                  These "Magic" mirrors were quite common, Prime Minister Abe presented one to the Pope recently.

                  http://www.asianews.it/news-en/Prime...ror-31287.html

                  This oddity of a book will explain the process:

                  https://archive.org/details/yemagick...00thom/page/n5

                  In the 8th year of the Bunsei era (1825) a second daughter is born.

                  In the 8th year of the Bunsei era (1826) a third daughter is born. He invents a steel crossbow and in the twelfth month (December) produces a resume of his inventions for the Maeda Family of the Kaga domain, this includes notes on his various Guns, Magic Mirror and fast loading system. In the same year, he sets up a drilling platform to prospect for water in the lands owned by the Mori Clan, at the foot of mount Tokuyama.

                  In the 11th year of the Bunsei era (1828) a fourth daughter is born. He invents a fountain pen type writing brush and a self filling lamp.

                  In the 13th year of the Bunsei era (1830) he petitions the Shogunate with his plans for a flying machine.

                  In the the sixth month (June) of the third year of the Tenpo era (1832) he begins making his Astronomical Reflector Telescopes.

                  In the 5th year of the Tenpo era (1834), the telescope was completed and observations began in the 10th Month (October).

                  It was in the first month (January) of the 6th year of the Tenpo era (1835), that he began his continuous observations of both "Sunspots and the aspects of the Moon", making numerous sketches of his observations.

                  It was in the 7th year of the Tenpo era (1836) that Kunitomo Village was plagued by the ravages of what became known as the great Tenpo Famine. In order to feed his village, he was forced to quit his observations in the second month (February) and sell his telescope. He was by far the most influential Astronomer during the entirety of the Shogunal period.

                  In the 12th month (December) of the 11th year of the Tenpo era (1840), he died at home. He was 63 years old .( He received the Buddhist name of Ikkansai).

                  Main References:

                  (Books)

                  "The Journal of Ikkansai Kunitomo Toubei" by Arima Seiho, published by Musashinoshoin in the 7th year of the Showa era (1932).

                  "Science in the Edo Period" Published by Tokyo Science Museum, in their "Masterpiece Collection" in the 9th year of the Showa era (1934), reprinted in the 55th year of the Showa era (1980).

                  "Civil Engineering in Pre - Meiji Japan" By the Association of Civil Engineers, Published by Iwanamishoten in the 11th year of the Showa era (1936).

                  "The Origin and Current Development of Artillery" By Arima Seiho, Published by Yoshikawakoubunkan in the 37th year of the Showa era (1962).

                  "The History of Telescopes in Japan" By Maruyama Sadao, published by the Friends of the Science Museum in the 39th year of the Showa era (1964).

                  "World Encyclopedia" 11th edition, published by Heibonsha in the 39th year of the Showa era (1964).

                  "The Witch and The Scientist" a compilation by Hirata Yutaka (1910 - 1993) from a paper by Murayama Sadao (published in Jinbutsuouraisha) in the 42nd year of the Showa era (1967).

                  "Complete Works of Hirata Atsutane" and "Complete Works of Hirata Atsutane - Supplemental" Published by: The association for the Complete Works of Hirata Atsutane.

                  "Enanji - Setsuen" Chinese Classical Literature (Vol 5) published by Heibonsha in the 49th year of the Showa era (1974)

                  "Edo Science and Classics Series - Manufacture of Large and Small Guns" Volume 42 (Papers by Tokoro Shokichi) Published by Kouwashuppun in the 57th year of the Showa era (1982).

                  "Hamura Town History Collection Volume 8 - Water flow study of the Tamagawa River (1)" (A paper by Horikoshi Masao) Published by Hamura Board of Education in the 59th year of the Showa era (1984).

                  "The History of Japanese Astronomy in the Early Modern Period (Part 2)" by Watanabe Toshio Published by Tsunekazu - Sha - Welfare series, in the 62nd year of the Showa era (1987).

                  "Kunitomo Business Developments Records" Published by the Kunitomo Town Business Development Committee in the 6th year of the Heisei era (1994).

                  "Kunitomo Ikkansai - The first Japanese Scientist to observe the Universe" Written by Yoshimura Masayoshi in the 7th year of the Heisei era (1995).

                  "Kunitomo Ikkansai - Expanding the World - Edo era Science and Technology" (2nd Edition) Nagahama Castle Museum of History, publication in the 15th year of the Heisei era (2003).

                  "The Restoration of Scientist Kunitomo Ikkansai's self filling Brush pen" By Hirose Kazumi Noumi, from "Kunitomo Ikkansai" - The Science and Technology Research Group in the 18th year of the Heisei era (2006).

                  "A Well Drilling machine invented by Kunitomo Ikkansai and Nakagawa Hanbei, Artillery master of the Tokuyama Han" by Marano Yutaka, Published by Kimagure Studio in the 25th year of the Heisei era (2013).

                  〔Documents〕

                  "The Journals of Kunitomo Ikkansai" (Nagahama City Archive Office List of documents and Photographs relating to the Kunitomo Toubei Family Archive material)

                  A copy of the photographic material was acquired by the Nagahama Castle Museum of History in August of 1987 (Showa 62).

                  "Asahi Shinbun" Article on "Magic Mirrors" and Hidden Christians, 18th August 1987 (Showa 62).

                  "Sankei Shinbun" 15th September 1988 (Showa 64) Article on the "Ordinary Bicycle" - "Kunitomo Gunsmiths make a Bicycle".

                  "Academic Survey of the Gregorian Reflective Telescope made by Kunitomo Toubei" Transactions of the Astronomical Observatory of Japan - Volume 4.

                  "The Astronomical Object seen with a Chopped Head" By Watanabe Fumio, "Space Guard" Study Group.

                  "Investigation into the Reflective Telescope in the collection of Nagahama Castle Museum of History and the production of a Replica" Nagahama Castle Museum of History 13th year of the Heisei era (2001).

                  (In addition to these, various other references, Net information, etc, were also referred to.)

                  ●Arima Seiho

                  The Author of "The Journals of Ikkansai Kunitomo Toubei " - the major Biography of Ikkansai.

                  Former Navy Rear Admiral, researcher in Military and Firearm History.

                  Graduate of the 33rd Naval Training School intake.


                  He retired from Naval Service in the 5th year of the Showa era (1930) and entered Kokugakuin University to study History.


                  In the 16th year of the Showa era (1941) he was recalled to Naval Service.

                  As an historian he published a large number of papers on such diverse subjects as: "Scientific Knowledge", "History Journals", "Water Prospecting", "Research into Rangaku - Dutch Studies", "Japanese History" & "National Defence History" etc.

                  His major works include "Hojo Ujinaga and his Military Science", Korean Naval History", "The Biography of Takashima Shuhan", "The Origins and Distribution of Artillery".

                  After the War, he was awarded the Academic degree of Doctor of Literature for "The Origins and Distribution of Artillery".

                  He was one of the first pioneers into Gun Research in Japan.

                  The "Arima Papers" which consists of some 1,629 volumes of Military documents were donated to the Library of the National Defence University.

                  He died on the 24th of August 1973 (Showa 48).

                  In 1931 ((Showa 6), he conducted an indepth investigation into the documents and artifacts relating to Ikkansai including astronomical study materials and reflective telescopes, which were held by the Kunitomo family, at the same time, the noted Astronomer Yamamoto Issei (1889 - 1959) was also conducting a similar investigation, so they pooled their efforts and later conducted a joint interview to reveal their discoveries.

                  The following year (Showa 7 - 1932) he published "The Journals of Ikkansai Kunitomo Toubei " .

                  In the Preface of the book, Professor Tsuji Zen'nosuke of Teikoku University shares some enlightening notes from Arima "When I entered Kokugakuin University, (As a mature student) I was surrounded by Young students, and I was inspired to study with the same fervour of their youth, I studied hard as a student, constantly researching historical materials in the Library and elsewhere".

                  After examining the records of Omi Kunitomo, I was determined to delve deeper and thus travelled to Kunitomo Village itself to immerse myself in the details of this remarkable man, Ikkansai, who was so clearly the genius of the turbulent age in which he lived.

                  After the publication of this book, many of the papers and books about Ikkansai by later researchers relied almost entirely upon it for their facts, until the full scale scientific research which took place in the 1990's.

                  It remains one of the most important references.
                  Last edited by Malcolm; 05-24-2019, 11:31 AM.
                  Pip Pip Cheerio

                  Malcolm

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